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Ch 27

The Reproductive System

Where "N" equals the numbe of sets of chromosomes, from either the male or female parent, then, "1N+1N" symbolizes the process of fertilization
"2N-->1N" symbolizes the process of meiosis
This thin single layer muscle surrounds the spermatic cords and testes and is responsible for raising and lowering the testes in the scrotum as a method of temperture regulation cremaster muscle
These cells nurture the developing sperm cells as they undergo meiosis and early maturation within the wall of the seminiferous tubules Sertoli cells
This skin structure covers and protects the testes scrotum
This structure is the site of sperm cell production seminiferous tubules
These cells secrete testosterone Leydig cells
Meiosis occurs within the wall of this structure seminifeous tubule
This hormone stimulates Leydig cells to secrete testosterone LH
This hormone produced in the hypothalamus inititates the secretion of LH and FSH from the anterior pituitary in males GnRH
The function of the epididymus is to allow sperm to mature
This structure is formed by the union of the duct from the seminal vesicle and the vas deferens ejaculatory duct
These are posterior to the bladder and anterior to the rectum and secretes an alkaline, fructose-filled fluid that is a component of semen seminal vesicles
This is composed of three cylindrical masses of erectile tissue with each cylinder surrounded by a fibrous tissue penis
This hormone promotes spermatogenesis testosterone
This muscle controls the tightness of the skin of the scrotum and assists in temperture regulation of the testes dartos
Which of the following contains the ducts, nerves, bood, and lymphatic vessles serving the testes spermatic cord
Which structure has a portion removed in a vasectomy ductus deferens
This is the site for implantation of a previously fertilizec ovum uterus
A weakening in the abdominal wall in the iinguinal regioin in males may resul in this condition hernia
Which of the following functions in both uinary and reproductive systems in the male urethra
The erectile body of the penis that surrounds the urethra is the corpus spongiosum
The corpus luteum secretes progesterone and estrogens
Sperm cells swim by means of flagella
The cells formed at the end of meiosis ini males are called spermatids
The daily production of sperm cels in the testes is about 300 million
In the male, the protein hormone inhibin is produced by the ___ and inhibits secretion of ___ Sertoli cells; FH
The portion of the ovary that contains the ovarian follicles is the cortex
After ovulation, the ___ develops into the ___: mature follicle, corpus luteum
What is produced by the ovaries secondary oocytes, estrogen and progesterone
This is the usual site of fertilization uterine tubes
This is the portion of the uterus that opens into the vagina cervix
This hormone triggers ovulation LH
This is secreted by the corpus luteum after ovulation progesterone
At birth, hundreds of thousands of oogonia are present in each ovary, but only about ___ of these will mature and ovulate during the life of a female four hundred
In the ovary, oocytes begin meiosis during fetal development
The open,, funnel-shaped portion of the uterine tube is called the infundibulum
A Pap smear is a test performed to detect cancer of the cervix
A hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus
The stratum basalis of the uterus repeatedly gives rise to a new stratum functionalis after each menstruation
The acidity of the vagina is due to breakdown of glycogen that produces organic acids
The smaller hairless folds that are lateral to the vaginal opening are the labia minora
The milk secreting glands in the breast are called alveoli
Increases the flexibility of the pubic symphysis near the end of pregnancy relaxin
An over-the-counter test is now available for purchase that indicated ovulation. This test measures the levels of LH
Low levels of progesterone result in menstruation
Oral contraceptive pills contain estrogens and progestin that inhibit the release of FSH and LH
Menarche is the first meses
These are ciliated, fingerlike projections that drape over and sweep the surface of the ovary during ovulation ensuring that the oocyte enters the uterine tube fimbiae
The surge in the release of this hormone triggers ovulation LH
Spermatogenesis is inhibited by normal body temperatures in mammals True
The male and female gonads in humans are identified sperm cells and eggs False
One would expect the testes to hang lower in the scrotal sac when the outside temperature is cold False
The testes normally descend into the scrotal sac before birth True
The head of a sperm cell contains a condensed nucleus that has one set of chromosomes True
Inhibin is a hormone produced by Leydig cells. Inhibin inhibits the secretion of LH False
Inhibin is a hormone produced by Sertoli cells. Inhibin inhibits the secretion of FSH True
Leydig cells secrete androgens and are located between the seminiferous tubules True
The ductus deferens can store sperm and propels them toward the urethra during ejaculation True
The prostate gland secretes a constituent of semen that contributes to sperm motility True
The overall pH of semen is alkaline True
Without the expression of the SRY gene, the default sex of a human is female True
The myometrium is a thick layer of skeletal muscle layer in the uterus False
The mammary glands are modified sweat glands True
Milk production is stimulated by prolactin, estrogens, and progesterone. Milk ejection is stimulated by oxytocin True
Normally, the uterine tubes move either secondary oocyte or a fertilized ovum toward the uterus True
The uterine and ovarian cycles are controlled by GnRH from the hypothalamus, which stimulates the release of FSH and LH by anterior pituitary True
The hormone, relaxin, enhances the contractions of the myometrium of the uterus at the possible time of implantation False
A "pregnancy" is defined as the successful production of a zygote False
A surge of this hormone initiates ovulation and may be accompanied by the pain known as "mittelschmerz" an increase in body temperature, and a change to a clear, "stretchy" cervical mucus True
Nitric oxide causes smooth muscle fibers within the erectile tissues of the penis to contract during an erection False
The primordial germ cells that will give raise to the sex cells of the next generation arise from the yolk sac of the early embryo True
Moves sperm from the ductus deferens in preparation for ejaculation; often refers to the parts of the urethra that conducts semen during ejaculation Ejaculatory duct
The supporting cutaneous structure containing testes Scrotum
The shared tube of the urinary system that conducts urine or semen to the outside Urethra
Duct that is between epididymus an ejaculatory ducts that can store sperm; is cut during a vasectomy Ductus deferens
Site of spermatogenesis Seminiferous tubules
Site of sperm maturation and storage Epipdidymus
Moves testes toward or away from abdominal wall Cremaster muscle
The male copulatory organ Penis
Produces an alkaline section containing fructose; secretion makes up most of the seminal fluid Seminal vesicles
Supports and protects developing spermatogenic cells; secretes inhibin; forms testis/blood barrier Sertoli cells
Supporting structure containing ductus deferens, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and the cremaster muscle Spermatic cord
Cells between seminiferous tubules that produce testosterone Leydig cells
Surrounds urethra beneath urinary bladder; produces seminal secretions that contribute to sperm viability and motility Prostate gland
Sperm producing cells Spermatogenic cells
Produces and secretes an alkaline substances often before ejaculation that helps in copulatory lubrication and neutralization of vaginal acidity Bulbourethral glands
A small cylindrical mass of erectile tissue and nerves in the female that is analogous to the male penis Clitoris
Refers to the external genitalia of the female Vulva
The female copulatory organ becomes part of the birth canal Vagina
Muscular layer of the uterus that is responsible for expulsion of the fetus from the uterus Myometrium
The group of the cells that nourish the developing oocyte and begin to secrete estrogens Follicular cells
The site of menstruation or implantation of a fertilized ovum Uterus
Produces progesterone, estrogens, relaxin, and inhibin Corpus luteum
Modified sudoriferous glands involved in lactation Mammary gland
The layer of the uterine lining that is partially shed during each monthly cycle Endometrium
The usual site of fertilization and site of tubal ligation Uterine tube
That part of the uterus that is closest to the vagina Cervix
Anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates milk production Prolactin
Is secreted by the corpus luteum to maintain the uterine lining during the first trimester of pregnancy Progesterone
Stimulates the initial secetion of estogens by growing follicles; promotes follicular growth FSH
Promotes development of female reproductive structures; lowers blood cholesterol Estrogens
Contributes to male sexual behavior; spermatogenesis, and libido Androgens
Relaxes the uterus by inhibiting myometrial contractions during monthly cycles; increases flexibility of pubic symphysis during chilldbirth Relaxin
Stimulates Leydig cells to secrete testosterone in males and triggers ovulation in females LH
Inhibits production of FSH by the anterior pituitary gland Inhibin
Posterior pituitary hormone responsible for uterine contraction and release of milk from the mammary glands Oxytocin
Stimulates male pattern of development; stimulates protein synthesis; contributes to sex drive Testosterone
Maintains the corpus luteum during the first trimester of pregnancy Human chorionic gonadotropin
Created by: lawalk



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