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Ch 26

Fluid and Electrolyte Balance

QuestionAnswer
How much of the total volume of body fluid is intracellular fluid 2/3
80% of the extracellular fluid is interstitial fluid
This occurs when water loss is greater than water gain dehydration
Which of the following is used to promote water reabsorption by the kidneys antidiuretic hormone
Water intoxication results from dilute body fluids and a decrease in the osmolarity of interstitial fluids
Which of the following is a specific function of electrolytes in the body carry electrical currents
In extracellular fluid the most abundant cation is Na+
In extracellular fluid is the most abundant anion is Cl-
In intracellular fluid the most abundant cation is K+
The Na+ level in blood is controlled by aldosterone
This occurs between RBC and blood plasma as the blood level of carbon dioxide increases or decreases chloride shift
This is the most abundant mineral in the body Calcium
PTH, calcitriol and calcitonin are the main regulators of calcium in the blood
Buffer systems, exhaling carbon dioxide and excretion by the kidneys are all ways to eliminate H+
This is a condition where blood pH is below 7.35 acidosis
Inadequate exhalation of carbon dioxide can cause blood pH to decrease
This imbalance results when systemic arterial blood CO2 levels raise to abnormal values respiratory acidosis
This is the most common cause of metabolic alkalosis vomiting
This is the most common cause of transitory respiratory alkalosis hyperventiliation
The rate of fluid intake and outtake is how much higher in an infant than in an adult 7 times higher
The largest volume of body fluid is located within cells
Bone, DNA, RNA, ATP, and cell membranes all have one thing in common phosphate
Levels of which of the following are regulated by aldosterone sodium
Electrolytes dissociate into anions and cations
Reabsorption of sodium from the tubules of the nephron establishes an osmotic gradient that causes this to move back into the blood water
The cerebrospinal fluid in the brain is classified as extracellular fluid
Hyperventilation during a panic attack cause an increase in blood partial pressure of CO2
The oxygen atoms that we breath in are used immediately in aerobic respiration to make ATP and H2O
ADH and aldosterone are hormones that regulate fluid loss True
The primary way to increase body water is to increase the formation of metabolic water False
Most buffers consist of a mixture of weak acid that can donate H+ and the salt of that weak acid that can accept H+. Through this action pH change is resisted due to increases and decreases in H+ concentration True
An increase in blood volume will stimulate thirst False
Albumin is a protein "buffer" in blood plasma True
Changes in osmolarity and osmosis are the primary cause of water movements between various fluid compartments in the body True
List four hormones that regulate urine production in the kidneys ADH, aldosterone, angiotensin II, atrial naturetic peptide
Can be caused by oxygen deficiency at high altitude, stroke, or severe anxiety Respiratory alkalosis
Can be caused by excessive vomiting of gastric contents, gastric suctioning, use of certain diuretics, severe dehydration or excessive intake of alkaline drugs Metabolic alkalosis
An abdominal increase in the volume of interstitial fluid Edema
Can occur during renal failure or destruction of body cells that release phosphates into the blood Hyperphosphatemia
Can be caused by excessive water intake, excessive vomiting, or aldosterone deficiency Hyponatremia
Can be caused by emphysema, pulmonary edema, injury to the respiratory center of the medulla oblongata, airway destruction, or disorders of the muscles of breathing Respiratory acidosis
Can occur from hypoparathyroidism Hypocalcemia
Can be caused by decreases potassium intake or kidney disease; results in muscle fatigue, increased urine output, changes in electrocardiogram Hypokalemia
Condition that can occur as water moves out of plasma into interstitial fluid and blood volume decreases Hypovolemia
Can be caused by excessive sodium in the diet or with dehydration Hypernatremia
Occurs when water loss is greater than water gain Dehydration
The swelling of cells due to water moving from plasma into interstitial fluid and then into cells Water intoxication
Created by: lawalk