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the digestive system--vocab
|the organ system that changes food into simpler organic and inorganic molecules that can be absorbed by the blood and lymph and used by cells; consists of the alimentary tube and accessory organs.
|the series of digestive organs that extends from the mouth to the anus; consists of the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine.
|the digestive organs that contribute to the process of digestion, although digestion does not take place within them; consist of the teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.
|the physical breaking up of food into smaller pieces. (ex: chewing)
|the breakdown of food accomplished by digestive enzymes; complex organic molecules are broken down to simpler organic molecules.
|(or buccal cavity)the cavity in the skull bounded by the hard palate, cheeks, and tongue.
|bony projections in the upper and lower jaws that function in chewing.
|lines the socket and produces a bone-like cement that anchors the tooth.
|outermost layer of the crown; made by cells called ameloblasts.
|within the enamel; very similar to bone and is produced by cells called odontoblasts. also forms the roots of a tooth.
|innermost portion of a tooth; contains blood vessels and nerve endings of the trigeminal nerve(5th cranial).
|the gums; the tissue that covers the upper and lower jaws around the necks of the teeth.
|made of skeletal muscle that is innervated by the hypoglossal nerves(12th cranial).
|small projections on the upper surface of the tongue, many of which contain taste buds.
|the secretion of the salivary glands; mostly water and containing the enzyme amylase.
|the three pairs of exocrine glands that secrete saliva into the oral cavity; parotid, submandibular, and sublingual pairs.
|the pair of salivary glands located just below and in front of the ears.
|the pair of salivary glands located at the posterior corners of the mandible.
|the pair of salivary glands located below the floor of the mouth.
|muscular tube that takes food from the pharynx to the stomach; no digestion takes place here.
|lower esophageal sphincter
|the circular smooth muscle at the lower end of the esophagus; prevents backup of stomach contents.
|lining, of the alimentary tube, made of epithelial tissue, areolar connective tissue, and two thin layers of smooth muscle.
|made of areolar connective tissue with many blood vessels and lymphatic vessels.
|enteric nervous system
|the nerve fibers and plexuses of the alimentary tube; regulates secretions and contractions; is able to function independently of the CNS.
|the nerve networks in the submucosa. they innervate the mucosa to regulate secretions.
|one-way contractions, move the food toward the anus.
|the enteric nerve plexus in the external muscle layer of the organs of the alimentary tube; regulates the contractions of the external muscle layer.
|the sac-like organ of the alimentary tube between the esophagus and the small intestine; is a reservoir for food and secretes gastric juice to begin protein digestion.
|the circular smooth muscle at the junction of the stomach and the duodenum; prevents backup of intestinal contents into the stomach.
|folds of the mucosa of organs such as the stomach, urinary bladder, and vagina; permit expansion of these organs.
|the glands of the stomach and consist of several types of cells; their collective secretions are called gastric juice.
|secrete mucus, coats the stomach lining and helps prevent erosion by the gastric juice.
|the cells of the gastric pits of the stomach that secrete pepsinogen, the inactive form of the digestive enzyme pepsin.
|the enzyme found in the gastric juice that begins protein digestion; secreted by chief cells.
|the cells of the gastric pits of the stomach that secrete hydrochloric acid and the intrinsic factor.
|an enzyme of the parietal cells of the stomach lining; secretes a hydrogen ion(in exchange for potassium), which unites with a chloride ion to form HCI in gastric juice.
|the organ of the alimentary tube between the stomach and the large intestine; secretes enzymes that complete the digestive process and absorbs the end products of digestion.
|the first 10 inches of the small intestine; the common bile duct enters it.
|the second portion of the small intestine, about 8 feet long.
|the third and last portion of the small intestine, about 11 feet long.
|the organ in the upper right and center of the abdominal cavity; secretes bile for the emulsification of fats in digestion; has many other functions related to the metabolism of nutrients and the composition of blood.
|the structural unit of the liver; a columnar hexagon of liver cells and sinusoids surrounding a central vein; includes the smallest bile ducts.
|the secretion of the liver that is stored in the gallbladder and passes to the duodenum; contains bile salts to emulsify fats; is the fluid in which bilirubin and excess cholesterol are excreted.
|the duct that takes bile out of the liver; joins the cystic duct of the gallbladder to form the common bile duct.
|common bile duct
|the duct formed by the union of the hepatic duct from the liver and the cystic duct from the gallbladder, and joined by the main pancreatic duct; carries bile and pancreatic juice to the duodenum.
|the active component of bile that emulsifies fats in the digestive process.
|to physically break up fats into smaller fat globules; the function of bile salts in bile.
|a hormone secreted by the duodenum when food enters; stimulates secretion of bile by the liver and secretion of bicarbonate pancreatic juice.
|an accessory organ of digestion; a sac located on the undersurface of the liver; stores and concentrates bile.
|the duct that takes bile into and out of the gallbladder; unites with hepatic duct of the liver to form the common bile duct.
|a hormone secreted by the duodenum when food enters; stimulates contraction of the gallbladder and secretion of enzyme pancreatic juice.
|located in the upper left abdominal quadrant between the curve of the duodenum and the spleen, and is about 6 inches in length.
|a digestive enzyme that breaks down starch to maltose; secreted by the salivary glands and the pancreas.
|a digestive enzyme that breaks down emulsified fats to fatty acids and glycerol; secreted by the pancreas.
|a digestive enzyme that breaks down proteins into polypeptides; secreted by the pancreas.
|the duct that takes pancreatic juices to the common bile duct.
|digestive enzymes that break down polypeptides to amino acids; secreted by the small intestine.
|a digestive enzyme that breaks down sucrose to glucose and fructose; secreted by the small intestine.
|a digestive enzyme that breaks down maltose to glucose; secreted by the small intestine.
|a digestive enzyme that breaks down lactose to glucose and galactose; secreted by the small intestine.
|the circular folds of the mucosa and submucosa of the small intestine; increase the surface area for absorption.
|folds of the mucosa of the small intestine that increase the surface area for absorption; each villus contains a capillary network and a lacteal.
|microscopic folds of the cell membrane, and are collectively called the brush border.
|a dead-end lymph capillary.
|a small fat globule formed by the small intestine from absorbed fatty acids and glycerol.
|the organ of the alimentary tube that extends from the small intestine to the anus; absorbs water, minerals, and vitamins and eliminates undigested materials.
|the large intestine.
|the first part of the large intestine, the dead-end portion adjacent to the ileum.
|a fold of the intestinal mucosa that surrounds the opening from ileum to cecum.
|a small tubular organ that extends from the cecum; has no known function for people and is considered a vestigial organ.
|an organ that is reduced in size and function when compared with that of evolutionary ancestors; includes the appendix, ear muscles that move the auricle, and wisdom teeth.
|inflammation of the appendix.
|the surgical removal of the appendix.
|the longitudinal muscle layer of the colon; three bands of smooth muscle fibers that extend from the cecum to the sigmoid colon.
|the pouches of the colon.
|in the colon, the bacteria that produce vitamins and inhibit the growth of the pathogens.
|the spinal cord reflex that eliminates feces from the colon.
|internal anal sphincter
|the circular smooth muscle that surrounds the anus; relaxes as part of the defecation reflex to permit defecation.
|external anal sphincter
|the circular skeletal muscle that surrounds the internal anal sphincter and provides voluntary control of defecation.
|non-essential amino acids
|the amino acids that can be synthesized by the liver.
|the transfer of an amino(NH2) group from an amino acid to a carbon chain to form a non-essential amino acid; takes place in the liver.
|essential amino acids
|the amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the liver and must be obtained from proteins in the diet.
|the removal of an amino(NH2) group from an amino acid; takes place in the liver when excess amino acids are used for energy production; the amino groups are converted to urea.
|the process by which the long carbon chain of a fatty acid molecule is broken down into two-carbon acetyl groups to be used in cell respiration; takes place in the liver.
|most abundant plasma protein, helps maintain blood volume by pulling tissue fluid into capillaries.
|produced by the liver; includes prothrombin, fibrinogen, and Factor 8, which circulate in the blood until needed in the chemical clotting mechanism.
|proteins that serve as carriers for other molecules, such as fats, in the blood.
|the macrophages of the liver; phagocytize pathogens and old red blood cells.
|mass of swallowed food.
|food changed into liquid-like material by mechanical digestion.