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Hormones of the anterior pituitary gland ACTH, GH, TSH, LH, FSH, and Prolactin
Hormones of the posterior pituitary gland Stores and releases ADH, Oxytocin
Anatomy of the thyroid gland 2 lateral lobes connected by isthmus;follicles that produce the glycoprotein thyroglobulin;Colloid (thyroglobulin + iodine) fills lumen of follicles and the precursor of thyroid hormone;Parafollicular cells produce calcitonin
Up-regulation Up-regulation—target cells form more receptors in response to the hormone
Down-regulation target cells lose receptors in response to the hormone
Prolactin milk production
Calcitonin Antagonist to parathyroid hormone; PTH—most important hormone in Ca2+ homeostasis; Negative feedback control: rising Ca2+ in the blood inhibits PTH release; Elevated Ca2+ depresses NS and contributes to formation of kidney stones
Hormones of the Adrenal Cortex Zona glomerulosa—mineralocorticoids Zona fasciculata—glucocorticoids Zona reticularis—sex hormones, or gonadocorticoids (androgens)
Hormones of the Adrenal Medulla Epinephrine and norepinephrine
Mineralcorticoids Regulate electrolytes (primarily Na+ and K+) in ECF Aldosterone is the most potent mineralocorticoid Stimulates Na+ reabsorption and water retention by the kidneys
Glucocorticoids Keep blood sugar levels relatively constant Maintain blood pressure by increasing the action of vasoconstrictors
Cortisol Major glucocorticoid Released in response to ACTH, patterns of eating and activity, and stress Prime metabolic effect is gluconeogenesis—formation of glucose from fats and proteins Promotes rises in blood glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids
Hypersecretion of glucocorticoid Depresses cartilage and bone formation Inhibits inflammation Depresses the immune system Promotes changes in cardiovascular, neural, and gastrointestinal function
Cushing's syndrome Hypersecretion of glucocorticoid
Hyposecretion of glucocorticoid Also involves deficits in mineralocorticoids Decrease in glucose and Na+ levels Weight loss, severe dehydration, and hypotension
Addison’s disease Hyposecretion of glucocorticoid
Hormones of the hypothalamus Hypothalamic hormones stimulate the release of most anterior pituitary hormones;oxytocin and ADH
Growth Hormone Stimulates liver, skeletal muscle, bone, and cartilage to produce insulin-like growth factors Mobilizes fats, elevates blood glucose by decreasing glucose uptake and encouraging glycogen breakdown (anti-insulin effect of GH)
Erythropoietin Signals production of red blood cells
Insulin Lowers blood glucose levels Enhances membrane transport of glucose into fat and muscle cells Participates in neuronal development and learning and memory Inhibits glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis
Glucagon Major target is the liver, where it promotes Glycogenolysis—breakdown of glycogen to glucose Gluconeogenesis—synthesis of glucose from lactic acid and noncarbohydrates Release of glucose to the blood
Insulin action on cells Activates a tyrosine kinase enzyme receptor Leads to increased glucose uptake and enzymatic activities Catalyze the oxidation of glucose for ATP production Polymerize glucose to form glycogen Convert glucose to fat (particularly in adipose tissue)
Diabetes mellitus Due to hyposecretion or hypoactivity of insulin Three cardinal signs of DM Polyuria—huge urine output (osmolality) Polydipsia—excessive thirst (ADH) Polyphagia—excessive hunger and food consumption (No insulin to put glucose in the cells)
Diabetic Ketoacidosis resulting from large amounts of ketoacids from less insulin production and greater fat metabolism
Hyperinsulinism Excessive insulin secretion; results in hypoglycemia, disorientation, unconsciousness
Hormonal synergism more than one hormone produces the same effects on a target cell (FSH and LH)
Hormonal permissiveness one hormone cannot exert its effects without another hormone being present (Thyroid hormone and Epinephrine)
Hormonal antagonism : one or more hormones opposes the action of another hormone (GnRH blockers, sex change)
Glyconeogenesis Production of glycogen from noncarbohydrate molecules such as amino acids, fatty acids, or lactate
Glycogenolysis Breakdown of stored glycogen into glucose
Glycogenesis the synthesis of glycogen from glucose from the blood
Created by: WickedM
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