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Study Guide #3

A&P 2

Innermost layer of a blood vessel Tunica Intima
Tunica Intima is made of Endothelium - a thin layer of epithelial cells lining the inside of the blood vessels
Purpose of Endothelium plays in blood vessel keeps blood from sticking
Middle layer of a blood vessel Tunica Media
Tunica Media is made of smooth muscle and elastic fibers
Thickest layer of an artery Tunica Media
Outermost layer of a blood vessel Tunica Externa (Adventitia)
Tunica Externa is made of smooth muscle and collagen fibers
Thickest layer in a vein tunica externa (adventitia)
Where are continuous capillaries found? anywhere you don't want leaks (abundant in skin and muscles)
Where are Fenestrated Capillaries found? anywhere you want fluid/nutrient exchange to occur (Small intestines, endocrine glands, kidneys)
Where are Sinusoidal Capillaries found? anywhere you want blood cells to move (liver, bone marrow, spleen)
What is local blood flow? it is the blood delivered locally to the capillaries of a specific tissue and is measured in milliliters per minute.
What is peripheral resistance? this term is typically used when discussing the resistance of blood in the blood vessels (as opposed to the resistance of blood in the heart)
Mean Arterial Pressure the average measure of the blood pressure forces on the arteries. distolic pressure + 1/3 pulse pressure
Systolic pressure the highest blood pressure generated in arteries is during ventricular systole when the artery is maximally stretched.
diastolic pressure the lowest pressure is during ventricle diastole when the artery recoils no further
pulse pressure is the additional pressure placed on the arteries from when the heart is resting (diastolic pressure) to when the heart is contracting (systolic blood pressure)
Lumen Diameter Artery vs. Vein A:Narrower than vein lumen V:Wider than arter lumen
General Wall Thickness Artery vs. Vein A:Thicker than vein V:Thinner than artery
Cross-Sectional Shape Artery vs. Vein A:Retains its circular c/s shape V:c/s tends to collapse if no blood in vein
Thickest Tunic Artery vs. Vein A:Tunica Media V:Tunica Externa
Elastic and Collagen Fibers in Tunics Artery vs. Vein A:More than in vein V:Less than in artery
Valves Artery vs. Vein A:None V:Present in most veins
Blood Pressure Range Artery vs. Vein A:higher than in veins V:lower than in arteries
Blood Flow Artery vs. Vein A:Transports blood away from heart to the body V:Transports blood from the body to the heart
Blood Oxygen Levels Artery vs. Vein A:systemic arteries carry blood in high in O2 pulmonary arteries carry blood low in O2 V:systemic veins carry blood low in O2 pulmonary veins carry blood high in O2
Branches of the Aortic Arch B: Brachiocephalic Trunk C: Common Coratid S: Subclavian
What is vasodilation? relaxation of the smooth muscle, or widening of the blood vessel lumen
Vasodilation of arterioles and relaxation of precapillary sphincters occur in response to: -declining tissue O2 -Substances from metabolically active tissues (H+, K+, adenosine, an dprostaglandins) and inflammatory chemicals
Effects of Metabolic vasodilation: -relaxation of vascular smooth muscle -release of Nitric Oxide from vascular endothelial cells -Nitric Oxide is the major factor causing vasodilation -Vasoconstriction is due to sympathetic stimulation & endothelins
As diameter of vessels decreases the total cross-sectional area: increases and velocity of blood flow decreases -much like a stream that flows rapidly through a narrow gorge but flows slowly through a broad plane.
Calculation for Net Filtration Pressure (HPb-HPif)-(COPb-COPif) HP=Hydrostatic Pressure if=interstitial fluid COP=Colloid osmotic pressure b=blood
Hydrostatic Pressure: the physical force exerted by a fluid on a structure
colloid osmotic pressure the pull of water back into a tissue by the tissue's concentration of proteins
the artery auscultated to measure blood pressure brachial artery
Vein that is most commonly used to draw blood from the upper extremity median cubital vein
Blood Vessel sometimes utilized to form a new coronary vessel surgically: Great Saphenous Vein
6 hormones produced by Anterior Pituitary Gland: -Growth Hormone (GH) -Thyroid-Stimulating hormone (TSH) or thyrotropin -Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)Adrenal Cortex -Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) -Luteinizing Hormone (LH) -Prolactin (PRL)
Anatomy of the Thyroid: -2 lateral lobes connected by isthmus -Composed of follicles that produce the glycoprotein thryoglobulin -Colloid fills the lumen of the follicles and is the precursor of thyroid hormone -parafollicular cells produce the hormone calcitonin
Colloid: thyroglobulin + iodine
Hormone directly responsible for the production of RBCs erythropoietin
Function of Growth Hormone -stimulates liver, skeletal muscle, bone, and cartilage to produce insulin-like growth factors -mobilizes fats, elevates blood glucose by decreasing glucose uptake and encouraging glycogen breakdown (anti-insulin effect of GH)
Up-Regulation target cells form more receptors in response to the hormone increase H> R<
Down-Regulation target cells lose receptors in response to the hormones decrease H< R>
Hormones secreted by the Hypothalamus: anything with RELEASING or INHIBITING in its name
Permissiveness one hormone cannot exert its effects withour another hormone being present (thyroid hormone and epinephrine)
Synergism more than one hormone produces the same effects on a target cell (FSH and LH)
Antagonism one or more hormones opposes the action of another hormone (GnRH blockers, sex change)
Glycogenolysis breakdown of glycogen to glucose
Gluconegenesis synthesis of glucose from lactic acid and noncarbohydrates
Glycogenesis the synthesis of glycogen from glucose obtained from the blood
Hormone responsible for milk production Prolactin
Calcitonin decreases blood calcium levels -stimulate ostiColastic (borrows calcium, never gives it back)
Parathyroid hormone increases blood calcium levels -stimulate osteoBlastic
hormones of the adrenal gland (adrenal medulla) epinephrine and norepinephrine
hormones of the adrenal gland (adrenal cortex) aldosterone, cortisol, androgens
epinephrine/norepinephrine prolong fight-or-flight response (symathetic)
aldosterone regulate blood sodium and potassium levels
cortisol participate in stress response
androgens stimulates maturation and functioning of reproductive system
Pathway of air through the respiratory system 1. nose 2. nasopharynx 3. oropharynx 4. laryngopharynx 5. larynx 6. trachea 7. main bronchi 8. lobar bronchi 9. segmental bronchi 10.terminal bronchioles 11. respiratory bronchioles 12. alveolar ducts 13. alveolar sacs
location of laryngeal prominence (adam's apple) V-shaped anterior projection of the thyroid cartilage
Voice Production Speech: intermittent release of expired air while opening and closing the glottis Pitch: determined by the length and tension of the vocal cords Volume: depends upon the force of air
Voice Production -Chambers of pharynx, oral, nasal, and sinus cavities amplify and enhance sound quality -sound is "shaped" into language by muscles of the pharynx, tongue, soft palate, and lips
Intrapulmonary Pressure (Ppul) -pressure in the alveoli -fluctuates with breathing -always eventually equalizes with Patm
Intrapleural Pressure (Pip) -pressure in the pleural cavity -fluctuates with breathing -always a negative pressure (<Patm & <Ppul)
Boyles's law -the relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas -pressure (P) varies inversely with volume (V) P1/V1 = P2/V2
Surfactant -detergent-like lipid and protein complex produced by type II alveolar cells -reduces surface tension of alveolar fluid and discourages alveolar collapse -insufficient quantity in premature infants causes infant respiratory distress syndrome
Structures of the respiratory zone -respiratory bronchioles -alveolar ducts -alveoli
which album is the best release by tool Lateralus
Created by: rebeccamac22