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The Urinary System

Urine contains waste products of metabolism
The kidneys secrete the hormone erythropoietin, which functions to increase the rate of red blood cell production
Urine reaches the urinary bladder through the ureters
Which is not a major function of the kidney regulation of blood cell size
Which of the following is a common nitrogenous waste product normally excreted by the kidneys urea
The portion of the kidney the contains loops of Henle and collecting tubules is called the renal pyramids
Which is the correct order of filtrate flow glomerular apsule, proximal convoluted tubule (PCT), loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule (DCT), collecting duct
Which structure of the nephron reabsorbs the most substances proximal convoluted tubule
This is the structure of the nephron that filters blood glomerular capsule (glomerulus)
This is a nephron process that results in a substance entering the already formed filtrate secretion
This occurs when stretching triggers contraction of smooth muscle walls in afferent arterioles myogenic mechanism
This is when a substance passes from the fluid in the tubular lumen through the apical membrane then across the cytosol into the interstitial fluid transcellular reabsorption
The proximal convoluted tubules reabsorb what percentage of filtered water 65%
Which of the following is a way angiotensin II affects the GFR after the release of renin all of the preceding
Urea recycling can cause a build up of urea in the renal medulla
Increased secretion of aldosterone would result in a ____ of blood ____ increase, sodium
The ascending loop of Henle is impermeable to water
An analysis of the physical, chemical, and microscopic properties of urine is called urinalysis
Water accounts for what percentage of the total volume of urine 95%
This is a test to measure kidney function plasma creatinine
This transports urine from the kidney to the bladder ureter
This lies in the anterior corner of the trigone of the bladder internal urethral orifice
Which of the following are not secreted into the tubular fluid glucose
This hormone released by the heart acts to reduce blood Na+ and lower blood volume and pressure thus reducing the GFR atrial natriuretic peptide
Urine leaves the urinary bladder through the urethra
Fenestrations are associated with the glomerulus
The kidneys help control blood pressure by the secretion of renin
Sodium is moved out of the cells of the proximal convoluted tubule and into the interstitial fluid by the process of active transport
In renal interstitial fluid sodium chloride concentration increases from cortex to medulla
Filtration of blood occurs in the glomerulus
The loop of Henle is associated with reabsorption
Which of the following molecules cannot pass the filtration membranes in the kidneys large proteins
The normal kidneys are only about ____ as effective at the age of 70 as they are at age 40 50%
Reabsorption is the movement of molecules from the ____ into the ____ renal tubules, peritubular capilliaries
Very little water reabsorption occurs in the thick ascending loop of Henle
Sodium ions move through the apical membranes of principal cells of the collecting duct by diffusion
Glomerular filtrate is produced as a result of blood hydrostatic pressure
The external opening of the urinary system is the external urethral orifice
The visceral layer of Bowman's capsule is covered with specialized cells called podocytes
Increased sodium and chloride ion concentrations in the interstitial fluid of the renal medulla are the result of countercurrent mechanism
Renal blood pressure remains fairly constant due to the function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus
Chloride ions are actively reabsorbed from the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle
Potassium ions are actively secreted into the tubular fluid of the distal convoluted tubule
Blood evaluation reveals high levels of ceatinine, urea, uric acid, and potassium. Family members report failure to urinate, even though the patient consumed a fairly large quantity of water during the day. The patient is experiencing renal failure
The process by which water is reabsorbed by the following solutes when the solutes are reabsorbed is called obligatory water reabsorption
Which layer of the endothelial-capsular membrane prevents red blood cells from leaving the blood, but allows all components of the blood plasma to pass through fenestrated endothelial cells
Normally, net filtration pressure in the kidney is about 10 mmHg
In the process of renal auto regulation, when the juxtaglomerular apparatus secretes less vasoconstrictor substance the afferent aterioles dilate, increasing glomerular filtration rate
Which of the following chemicals is an enzyme secreted by the juxtaglomerular apparatus renin
Glucose enters the proximal convoluted tubule cells by _____ and leaves the cell into the interstitial fluid by ___ sodium ion-glucose symporters, facilitated diffusion
The main regulator of facultative water reabsorption is antidiuretic hormone
Ions, but not water, are reabsorbed from the tubular fluid in the ascending loop of Henle. Therefore, the osmolarity of the fluid entering the distal convoluted tubule is less than blood
The most important solutes that contribute to the high osmolarity of the interstitial fluid in the renal medulla are sodium ions,chloride ions, and urea
The substance inulin is useful for determining glomerular filtration rate (GFR) because it is filtered and secreted
The urinary bladder in the female lies inferior to the uterus
The color of urine is due to the presence of a chemical called urochome
This cell junction structure prohibits mixing of the various transporters on either of the apical or basolateral membranes of tubule cells. However they allow important ions to pass via the paracellular route- ____ ____ tight junctions
The more technical term for "urination" or "voiding" is ____. When working with some patients one might have to use the colloquial word ____, a term used for young children and some uneducated adults mictuition, pee
Along with the openings in the basement membrane, the diameter of these two "openings: determine the size of molecules that can pass through the filtration membrane- ____ and ____ fenestrations, filtration slits
In what disease condition is the transport maximum (Tm) of the Na+ glucose transporter in the apical membranes of the cells of the proximal tubule exceeded ____ ____ What is the resulting condition of its presence in urine called ____ diabetes melitus, glucosuria
Name one important cation in the filtrate that is normally completely reabsorbed, but appears in variable amounts in the urine- ____ K+
A lack of voluntary control of micturition is called _____ incontinence
The primary method of transport of urine from the renal pelvis, through the ureters, and into the urinary bladder is by a muscular activity called ____ peristalsis
Modified smooth muscle cells in the wall of the afferent arteriole Juxtaglomerular cells
Pores in the glomerular endothelial cells that allow filtration of blood solutes, but not proteins and formed elements Fenestrations
Cells in the last portion of the distal convoluted tubule regulated by ADH and aldosterone Principal cells
Can secrete H+ against concentration gradient Intercalated cells
Site of obligatory water reabsorption Proximal convoluted tubule
The capillary network lying inside the glomerular capsule and functioning in filtration Glomerulus
Drains into a collecting duct Distal convoluted tubule
The functional unit of the kidney Nephron
The visceral layer of the glomerular capsule consisting of modified simple squamous epithelial cells Podocytes
Name for the combined glomerulus and glomerular capsule where plasma is filtered Renal corpuscle
Cells of the final portion of the loop of Henle that make contact with the afferent arteriole Macula densa
Kidneys receive about 20 to 25% of the resting cardiac output via the renal arteries True
The loops of Henle tubules of juxtamedulllary nephrons have vasa capillaries around them True
Principal cells respond to ADH by making the membrane more permeable to water in the lumen of the end of the distal convoluted tubule and collecting dutcs True
When more facultative water is reabsorbed in the dotal convoluted tubule, the volume of urine increases False
An increase in the level of activity of renal sympathetic nerves that release norepinephrine cause an increase in the GFR False
Diuretics have their effects by interfering with the reabsorption of water True
Parathyroid hormone stimulates the reabsorption of Ca++ in the early distal convoluted tubule True
In most situations, osmosis is responsible for water movements in the tubular reabsorption True
Aldosterone causes an increase in the reabsorption of Na+ and Cl- by the principal cells thereby serving to increase urine output and decreasing blood volume False
When dilute urine is being formed, the osmolarity of the tubular fluid increases as it flows down the descending limb of the loop of Henle, decreases as it flows up the ascending limb, and continues to decrease as it flows through the rest of the nephron True
The GFR normally increases proportionally when the systemic blood pressure increases False
An increase in the capsular hydrostatic pressure would be expected to decrease the GFR True
If considerable amounts of blood albumin were to be found in the urine, this would increase the GFR True
The visceral layer of Bowman's capsule consists of podocytes with pedicels producing filtration slits resting on the basal lamina True
The macula dense is a part of the wall of the distal end of the loop of Henle that lies adjacent to juxtaglomerular cells and the wall of the afferent arteriole as it enters Bowman's capsule True
It is appropriate to use the term "dialysis" when referring to the mechanism by which the kidney removes waste substances False
The capsular hydrostatic pressure is normally higher than the blood colloid osmotic pressure in the calculation of the her filtration pressure False
In reabsorption, if the transport maximum of a substance is exceeded, that substance is likely to appear in the urine True
The normal osmolarity of blood is about 1200 mOsm/liter False
The physiological maximum osmolarity of human concentrated urine is about 1200 mOsm/liter True
Can result with damage to the filtration membranes Albuminuria
Lack voluntary control of micturition Incontinence
Usually indicates a pathological condition Hematuria
Can result from diabetes melitus Glucouria
Produced from the catabolism of creatine phosphate in skeletal muscle Plasma creatinine
Insoluble stones of crystallized salts Renal calculi
Volume of blood that is cleared of a substance per unit of time Renal plasma clearance
Measure of blood nitrogen resulting from the catabolism and deamination of amino acids BUN test
Enzyme secreted by the juxtaglomerular cells Renin
Stimulates cells in the distal convoluted tubule to reabsorb more calcium into the blood Parathyroid hormone
Transport protein that reabsorbs Na+ together with a variety of other solutes Na+ syporters
Regulates facultative water reabsorption in the proximal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts ADH
Membrane proteins that function as water channels Aquaporins
A secondary active transport process that achieves Na+ reabsorption, returns filtered HCO3- and water to the peritubular capillaries, and secrets H+ Na+/H+ antiporters
Inhibits Na+ and H2O reabsorption in the proximal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts Atrial natriuretic peptide
Enzyme secreted by the juxtaglomerular cells Renin
Stimulates principal cells to secrete more K+ into the tubular fluid and absorb more Na+ and Cl- into the tubular fluid Aldosterone
Reduces glomerular filtration rate; increases blood volume and pressure Angiotensin II
Created by: lawalk