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Anatomy Lecture

Exam 2 Q from study guide

Compare the three types of muscular tissue with their functions and special properties. Skeletal: (move bone) striated/voluntary Cardiac: (found only in heart) is striated/ involuntary Smooth: (located walls of hollow organs) Not striated/usually involuntary. Functions: Electrical excitability, Contractility, extensibility, elasticity
Explain the importance of connective tissue components, blood vessels, and nerves to skeletal muscles. -Binds muscle fibers together yet is loose enough to allow them to move freely -allows vessels to supply fiber with nutrients - form continuous interconnected network -
Describe the microscopic anatomy of a skeletal muscle fiber (cell). Muscle fiber contains many myofibrils which contain thick(myosin) and thin (Actin) filaments and a sacromere runs from one thin filament z line to another and a M line is the center
Explain how a skeletal muscle fiber contracts and relaxes. - Release of acetylcholine -activation of ACh receptors -Production of muscle action potential -Termination of ACh activity © -ATP hydrolysis -Attachment of myosin to actin to form cross bridges -power stroke -detachment of myosin from actin
Compare the structure and function of the three types of skeletal muscle fibers. -Slow oxidative fibers smallest in diameter/use ATP at a slow rate/aerobic/resistant to fatigue -Fast oxidative fibers medium diameter/ generate considerable ATP/ aerobic/ anaerobic if use glycolysis -Fast glycolytic fibers largest diameter opp 1
Describe the effects of exercise on different types of skeletal muscle fibers -Fibers do not increase! Characteristics change! -Endurance training can change FG into FOG -Strength training FG increase in size and strength make muscles seem to bulge
Describe the main structural and functional characteristics of cardiac muscle tissue -Found only in heart striated and involuntary -branching cylinders centrally located nucleus -contracts continuously and rhythmically - intercalcated disks provide strength -connected end to end by desmosomes
Describe the main structural and functional characteristics of smooth muscle tissue. -non striated and involuntary and contains intermediate filaments -visceral smooth muscle= arranged in a network (fibers operate independently) -can contract due to nerve impulses, hormones, and stretch without tension
Describe the relationship between bones and skeletal muscles in producing body movements. -Attachment stationary bone (Origin) to movable bone (Insertion) -Muscles control joints by contracting concentrically( shortening) and eccentrically (lengthening)
Define lever and fulcrum and compare the three types of levers on the basis of location of the fulcrum, effort, and load. Lever: a rigid structure that can move around a fixed point (Bones) Fulcrum:That fixed point (Joints) # types of levers: Axis (1) Ex: Triceps pushdown Resistance (2) Ex: calf raise Fulcrum (3) Ex: Bicep curl
Identify the types of fascicle arrangements in a skeletal muscle, and relate the arrangements to the strength of contraction and range of motion. Parallel: parallel to longitudinal axis of muscle Fusiform: near longitudinal but tapers off near tendons (bulge) Circular:in concentric circles (form sphincter muscles) Triangular: spread over broad range Pennate: uni/bi/multi attachments on te
Explain how the prime mover, antagonist, synergist, and fixator in a muscle group work together to produce movement. Prime mover: produces desired action Antagonist: produces opposite action Synergist: assists prime mover reduces unnecessary movement Fixators: stabilize origin of a primer so can act efficiently
Explain seven features used in naming skeletal muscles.(table 11.2) Identify the principal skeletal muscles in different regions of the body by name, origin, insertion, action. -size, shape, action, # origins, location of muscle, sites of origin and insertion. -Muscles of head, anterior neck, and mandible -Eyes fastest contracting and precisely controlled -mastication chewing and speech -anterior neck deglutation and spee
Identify the organs of the digestive system -Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver, small intestine, large intestine
Describe the basic processes performed by the digestive system. -Digestion: breakdown of larger foods molecules into smaller food molecules -Absorption: passage of these smaller molecules into blood and lymph
Describe the layers that form the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. From deep to superficial -Mucosa: absorbs nutrients and secretes mucous -Submucosa: thick to serve vascular requirements and nerves reside here -Muscularis:provide tract with peristaltic contractions -Serosa: Protective coating/ pressure retention
Describe the peritoneum. -largest serous membrane of the body -lines wall of abdominal cavity -folds include:
Identify the locations of the salivary glands, and describe the functions of their secretions - lie outside the mouth and pour contents into ducts that empty into the oral cavity - saliva lubricates food and starts chemical digestion of carbohydrates
Describe the structure and functions of the tongue. -forms floor of oral cavity - is a skeletal muscle covered in mucous membrane -covered in papillae that contain tastebuds
Describe the structure and function of the pharynx. -deglutition or swallowing moves a bolus form the mouth to the stomach -muscular contractions of oropharynx and laryngopharynx propel into esophagus
Identify the parts of a typical tooth, and compare the deciduous and permanent dentitions. - Composed of dentin and are covered in enamel -hardest substance in the body ( permanent and deciduous) - three regions: crown, root, neck -for mechanical digestion
Describe the location, anatomy, histology, and function of the esophagus. - Collapsible muscular tube connects pharynx to stomach - Passes bolus by peristalsis - Contains upper and lower sphincter
Describe the location, anatomy, histology, and functions of the stomach. -impermeable except water/ion/drugs - cardia, fundus, body, and pylorus - has rugae, glands that produce mucous, hydrochloric acid, pepsin, 3 layered muscularis -Mechanical: mixing waves - Chemical: conversion of proteins into peptides by pepsin
Describe the location, anatomy, histology, and function of the pancreas. -has head body and tail -connected to duodenum via pancreatic duct -endocrine pancreatic islets: secrete hormones -exocrine acini: pancreatic juice -digest starch, proteins, triglycerides, nucleic acids
Describe the location, anatomy, histology, and functions of the liver and gallbladder. -left, right, caudate, quadrate lobe -GB sac that stores and concentrates bile -Liver cells (hepatocytes) produce bile -Cholecytoskin promotes ejection -bile breaks down lipids -bile secretion regulated by neural and hormone
Describe the location, anatomy, histology, and functions of the small intestine. -duodenum, jéjunum, ileum -glands secrete fluid and mucus -circular folds (villi) provide surface area for digestion and absorption
Describe the location, anatomy, histology, and functions of the large intestine -cecum, colon, rectum, anal canal -many goblet cells -mass peristalsis -last digestion through bacterial action -absorbs water, vitamins, electrolytes - defecation: elimination feces from rectum (voluntary contractions)
Describe the location of the heart and trace its outline on the surface of the chest. -located in mediastinum -2/3 mass left to midline -has apex, base, anterior superior right and left borders
Describe the structure of the pericardium and the heart wall. -pericardium: structure that surrounds and protects heart (outer fibrous layer and inner serous membrane) -pericardial cavity few mm of lubricating fluid - heart wall 3 layers: epicardium, myocardium, endocardium
Discuss the external and internal anatomy of the chambers of the heart. two superior chambers right and left atria two inferior chambers right and left ventricle auricles coronary sulcus b/w atria ventricles
Describe the structure and function of the valves of the heart. heart valves prevent the back flow of blood within the heart AV valves: Tri before you Bi Chordae tendinae and papillary muscles stabilize flaps each artery leaving heart has semilunar valve (pulmonary and aortic)
Describe the flow of blood through the chambers of the heart and through the systemic and pulmonary circulations. Inferior and superior vena cava and coronary sinus drain blood into right atrium then tri then right ventricle out pulmonary semilunar, trunk, and veins. into lungs and back in through left atrium tri valve to left ventricle up ascending aorta aortic se
Explain the structural and functional features of the conduction system of the heart. -Autorhythmic cells form conduction system -these are modified cardiac muscle that spontaneously generate action potentials -Sinoatrial node, atrioventricular node, atrioventricular bundle, bundle branches, perkinje fibers -cardiac cycle ECG
Identify the blood vessels and route of the hepatic portal circulation. for directing blood from parts of the gastrointestinal tract to the liver. Substances absorbed in the small intestine travel first to the liver for processing before continuing to the heart. Not all of the gastrointestinal tract is part of this system.
Who was Harvey? What did he do why do we care? -english physician -discovered blood flows one way
What was the belief about the heart, blood and liver before Vesalius The most commonly held belief is that arterial blood carries some sort of energy connected with air to the body (not far from the truth), and that blood in the veins distributes food from the liver (less accurate).
Describe the peritoneum folds. Mesentary: binds small intestine to posterior ab wall Mesocolon: bind transverse and sigmoid colon Falciform ligament: attaches liver to ab wall Lesser Omentum: stomach and duodenum Greater Omentum: fatty apron over transverse colon and SI
Created by: Awesomesauce182



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