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Chapter 14

Digestive System

pepsin digests almost all types of proteins
hydrochloric acid provides acidic environment for action of pepsin
mucus provides alkaline protective layer on inside of stomach wall
absorption passing of nutrients into blood stream
alimentary canal muscular tube from mouth to anus; digestive tract; gastrointestinal tract
amino acid chemical compound that results from digestion of complex proteins
amylase enzyme that is part of pancreatic juice and saliva and that begins the digstion of carbs
anal canal part of digestive tract extending from rectum to anus
anus place which feces exits body
appendage any body part inside or outside either subordinate to larger part of having no specific central function
appendiz wormlike appendage to cecum
bile yellowish brown to greenish fluid secreted by liver and tored in gallbladder; aids in fat digestion
bilirubin pigment contained in bile
body middle section of stomach
bowel intestine
cecum pouch at top of large intestine connected to bottom of ilem
cheeks walls of oral cavity
chyme semisolid mass of partially digested food and gastric juicces that passes from stomach to small intestine
colon major portion of large intestine
defecation release of feces from anus
deglutition swallowing
digestion conversion of food into nutrients for body and into waste products for release from body
duodenum top part of si where shyme mixes with bile, pancreatic, juice, and intestinal juice to continue digestive process
elimination conversion of waste material from liquid to semisolid and removal of that material via defecatoin
emesis/reguritation/reflux backward flow from normal direction
emulsification breaking down of fats
enyme protein that causes chemical changes in substances in digestive tract
epiglottis movable flap of tissue that vcovers trachea
esophagus part of alimentary canal from pharynx to stomach
fatty acid acid derived from fat during digestive process
feces semisolid waste that moves thru large intestine to anus where it is released
frenulum muscous membrane that attaches the tongue to floor of mouth
fundus upper portion of stomach
gallbladder organ on lower surface of liver; stores bile
glucose sugar found in fruits and plants and stored in various parts of body
glycogen starch that can be converted into glucose
gums fleshy sockets that hold teeth
ileum bottom part of si that connects to li
hard palate hard anterior portion of palate at roof of mouth
jejunum middle section of si
lingual tonsils two mounds of lymph tissue at back of tongue
lips two musclar folsd formerd around outside boundary of mouth
lipase enzyme contained in pancreatic juice
liver organ imporrtant in digestive and metabolic functions secretes bile
mastication chewing
mesentery membranous tissue that attaches small and large intestines to muscular wall at dorsal part of abdomen
mouth cavity in face which food and water is ingets
palatine tonsils mounds of lymphatic tissue on either side of pharynx
papilla tiny projection on superior surface of tongue (taste buds)
pancrease digestive organ that secrets digestive fluids; endocrine gland that regulates blood sugar
pepsin digestive enzyme in gastric juice
peristalsis coordinated rhythmic contraction of smooth muscle that forces food thru digestive tract
pharynx tube thru which food passes to esophagus
pylorus narrowed bottom part of stomach
rectum bottom portion of li; connected to anal canal
rugae folds in stomach lining' irregular ridges of mucous membrane on hard palate
salivary glands glands in mouth that secrete fluisd that aid in breaking down food
saliva fluid secreted by salviary glands; contains amylase
sigmoid colon s shaped part of li connectin at bottom to rectum
small intestine 24 ft long tube that continues that process of digestion started in stomach; place where most absoprtion occurs
large instestine passageway in intestinal tract for waste received from si to be excreted thru anus; place where water reabsorption takes place
soft palate soft posterior part of palate in mouth
stomach large sac between esophagus and si place where food is broken down
tongue flshy part of mouth that moves food during mastication and speech
throat pharynx
stool feces
uvula cone shaped projection hanging down from soft palate
villus tiny fingerliek projection on lining of small intestine with capillaries thru which digested nutrients are absorbed into blood stream and lymphatic system
ano anus
bilo bili bile
apendo appendico appendix
bucco cheek
ceco cecum
celio abdomen
chole cholo bile
cholangio bile vessel
cholecysto gallbladder
choledocho common bile duct
colo colono colon
duodeno duodenum
entero intestines
esophago esophagus
gastro stomach
glosso tongue
gluco glucose
glyco sugar
glycogeno glycogen
hepato liver
ileo ileum
jejuno jejunum
labio lip
linguo tongue
oro mouth
pancreato pancreas
peritoneo peritoneum
pharyngo pharynx
pyloro pylorus
procto anus rectum
recto rectum
sialo saliva salivary gland
sialadeno salivary gland
sigmoido sigmoid colon
steato fats
stomato mouth
alt at alanine transaminase
ast aspartic acid trasaminase
be barium enema
bm bowel movement
egd esophagogastroduodenoscopy
ercp endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
gerd gastroesophageal reflux disease
gi gastrointestinal
ibd inflammatory bowel disease
ibs irritable bowel syndrome
ng naso gastric
npo nothing by mouth
sgot serum glutamic oxaloacetic transminase
sgpt serum glutamic pyruvic transminase
tpn total parenteral nutrition
ugi (s) upper gastrointestinal (series)
cholangiography xray of bile ducts
cholecystography xray of gallbladder
colonocopy exmination of colon using endoscope
esophagoscopy exmination of esophagus with esophagoscope
gastroscopy exmination of stomach using endscope
peritoneoscoy examination of ab cavity using peritoneoscope
proctoscopy exmination of rectum and anus using roctoscope
sigmoidoscopy exination of sigmoid colon using sigmoidoscope
achalsia inability of muscle particularly cardiac sphincter to relax
acholrhydria lack of hydrochloric aid in stomach
anal fistula small opeing in anal canal thru which waste matter can leak into ab cavity
ankyloglossia condition of tongue being partially or completely attached to bottom of outh
anorexia nervosa eating disorder with extreme weight loss
aphagia inability to swallow
appendicitis inflammation of appendix
ascites fluid buildup in ab or peritoneal cavities
bulimia eating disorder with bingeing and purging
cheilitis inflammation of lips
cholecystitis inflammation of gallbladder
cholangitis inflammation of bile duct
cholelithiasis gallstones in gall bladder
cirrhosis liver disease; caused by alcholism
colic gastrointestinal distress especially infants
colitis inflammation of colon
constipation difficult or infrequet defecation
crohn's disease type of irritable bowel disease with no ulcers
diarrhea loose watery stool
diverticula small puchers in intestinal wall
diverticulitis inflammation of diverticula
diverticulosis condition which diverticula trap food or bacteria
duodenal ulcer ulcer in duodenum
dysentery irritation of intestinal tract with loose stools
dyspepsia indigestion
enteritis inflammation of si
dysphagia difficulty in swallowing
eructation belching
esophagitis inflammation of esophagus
fistula abnormal opening in tissue
flatulence gas in stomach or intestines
flatus gas in lower intestinal tract that can be released thru anus
gastritis inflammation of stomach
gallstones calculi in gallbladder
gastroenteritis inflammation of stomach and small intestines
glossitis inflammation of tongue
gastritis inflammation of stomach
halitosis foul mouth odor
hematemeiss blood in vomit
hematochezia blood in stool
hemorrhoisd swollen twisted veins in anus
hepatitis inflammation or disease of liver
hepatomegaly enlarged liver
hepatopathy liver disease
hiatal hernia protrusion of stomach thru opening in diaphragm
hyperbilirubinemia excessive bilirubin in blood
icterus jaundice
ileus intestinal blockage
ileitis inflammation of ileum
intussusception prolapse or collapse of intestinal part into neighboring part. one section collapses into another like telescope
jaundice excessive bilirubin in blood causing yellowing of skin
melena old blood in stool
nausea sick feeling in stomach
obesity abnormal accumulation of fat in body
pancreatitis inflammation of pancreas
parotitis protiditis inflammation of parotid gland
peptic ulcer sore on mucous membrane of digestive system stomach ulver or gastric ulcer
peritonitis inflammation of peritoneum
poluposis condition with polups as in intestines
proctitis inflammation of rectum and anus
sialoadenitits inflammation of salivary glands
steatorrhea fat in blood
ulcerative colitis inflammation of colon with uclers
volvulus intestinal blockage caused by intestine twisting on itself
abdominocentesis incision into ab to remove fluid or relieve pressure
anal fistulectomy removal of anal fistula
anastomosis union of two hoollow structures
appendectomy removal of appendix
billroth's 1 excision of pylorus
billroth's 2 resection of pyloorus iwth stomach
cheiloplasty repair of lips
cholecystectomy removal of gall bladder
choledocholithotomy removal of stomes from common bile duct
cholelithotomy removal of gallstones
cholelithotripsy breaking up r crushing of stones in body
colectomy removal of colon
colostomy creation of opening from colon into ab wall
diverticulectomy removal of diverticula
esophagoplasty repair of esophagus
gastrectomy removal of part or all of stomach
gastric resection or gastric bypass removal of part of stomach and repair of remianing part
glossectomy removal of tongue
glossorrhaphy suture of tongue
hemorrhoidectomy removal of hemorrhoids
hepatic lobectomy removal of one or more lobes of the liver
ileostomy creation of opening into ileum
liver biopsy removal of small amount of liver tissue to examine for disease
pancreatectomy removal of pancreas
paracentesis incision into ab cavity to remove fluid or relieve pressure
polupectomy removal of polyps
proctoplasty repair of anus or rectum
antiacid neutralizes stomach acid
antidiarrheal contros loose watery stool
antiemetic prevents vomitin
antispasmodic controls intestinal tract spasms
cathartic induces vomiting also strong laxative for emptying bowels
laxative induces bowels to move in order to relieve constipation
Created by: cs3516