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QuestionAnswer
What instrument measures the weight of air? Mercurial barometer
What is the standard atmospheric pressure at sea level measured in inches of mercury? In psi? 29.92 inches of mercury; 14.7 psi
What are the two temperature scales that are commonly used? Fahrenheit and Celsius
If two aircraft are flying with the same horsepower but at different altitudes, why does the aircraft flying at a higher altitude fly faster than the aircraft flying at a lower altitude? Because at the higher altitude, the air is less dense therefore causing less drag on the aircraft
What is the term for the curve of the surface of an airfoil from the leading edge to the trailing edge? Camber
What aerodynamic forces affect aircraft in flight? Lift, weight, thrust, and drag
How does drag act in relation to relative wind? Parallel
Define AOA. The angle between the mean chord line of an airfoil and the aircraft flight path
How are airframe components joined? By rivets, bolts, screws, welds, or adhesives
What are the five stresses to which airframes are subjected? Tension, compression, torsion, shear, and bending
Which fuselage design does not use formers, frame assemblies, or bulkheads to give shape to the fuselage? The monocoque design
What internal wing components serve as an attachment point for the skin? The ribs and stringers
What type of material is usually used for construction of flight control surfaces? Aluminum alloy
What is used to round out the angle formed between the fixed tail surfaces and the fuselage? Fairing
What structural unit provides a smooth airflow around and into the engine inlet? Engine nacelles
What component controls airflow around the weapons to reduce turbulence in the bay on some bomber aircraft? Bay spoilers or air spoilers
How do doors differ from panels? Doors are hinged
Most transparent structures on an aircraft, such as canopies, windshields, and windows, are made of what two materials? Transparent plastics or safety glass
How do paint removers and stripping compounds affect the plastic facings of a radome? It may adversely affect its electrical properties or strength
How are fuselage station numbers measured? In inches from the reference datum or zero point on or near the aircraft nose
What are the three axes that an aircraft operates around? Longitudinal, lateral, and vertical
What are the lateral control surfaces of the aircraft? Ailerons, spoilers/speed brakes, and wing flaps
What controls all directional movements of aircraft? Primary flight controls
What primary flight control guides the aircraft about the vertical axis? Rudder
Which type of stabilator has both sides connected together so that when one side moves the other side must move in the same direction and amount? Solid type
What is an elevon? It is a combination of an aileron and an elevator
What are five types of wing flaps? Plain, split, fowler, slotted, and leading-edge slats or flaps
What is the difference between leading-edge flaps and wing slats? If the leading edge operates in conjunction with the trailing edge flaps, then you have leading-edge flaps. If they operate independently of the flaps, they are called slats
What is the purpose of speed brakes? Increase drag to slow the aircraft and/or reduce landing distance
List the three types of trim systems. Roll, pitch, and yaw
Which type of flight control system reduces the need for long cables, turnbuckles, quick disconnects, push-pull rods, and the associated flight control hardware? Fly-by-wire
What are the two major parts of the AFCS? Stab aug system and the A/P system
What system is used to make bomber aircraft stable for launching weapons? Stab aug
What auto pilot system mode automatically maintains aircraft speed? Mach hold
Define electricity. A class of physical phenomena arising from the existence and interactions of electric charges
Of what particles are atoms composed? Neutrons, protons, and electrons
List four examples of insulators. Wood, rubber, plastic, and glass
List four examples of conductors. Platinum, gold, copper, and silve
Where do you normally use semiconductors? In solid-state devices
What is EMF? Electromotive force: the electrical pressure that causes electrons to flow through the conductor.
Define electrical current. The movement of electrons through a conductor
What factors affect the amount of resistance in a conductor? The type of material used, temperature, size
What unit of measurement is used to express electrical power? Watts
What is a simple definition of magnetism? The ability of a substance to attract
How are artificial magnets classified? Permanent or temporary
What is permeability? The ease of ability to conduct magnetic lines of force
What is residual magnetism? The amount of magnetism that remains in a temporary magnet
How is magnetism induced in magnetic material? Place in a magnetic field or bring it into contact with another magnet
Can magnetic lines of force be insulated? No
What are the three most commonly used shapes of magnets? Bar, ring, and horseshoe
How can a magnet be weakened? Heating or excessive jarring
Define flux. A term for magnetic lines of force
How is electromagnetism developed? By current of electricity
When current flows through a conductor, does a magnetic field exist? Yes
What must you know to apply the “left hand rule”? The direction of the current flow
What rule do you use to determine the flux direction of a wire in a loop? The left-hand rule
How can an electromagnet’s field strength be increased? By using a few turns of wire carrying a larger current or using many turns of wire carrying a small current
What is the purpose of a conductor? Provide a path for electrons to flow with minimum resistance
Why are protective devices installed in aircraft electrical systems? Protect against system overloads and shorts in a circuit
How much time must pass before resetting a trip-free type circuit breaker? After a cooling–off period of approximately 1 minute
What is the purpose of a current limiter? Provide protection against fault currents
What is the purpose of a resistor? Control the amount of current flow in a circuit
Why is alternating current used as the primary electrical power source in aircraft? Less power is lost during transmission and the elimination of insulation and brushes
What is the unit of measurement for frequency? Hertz
Define phase relationship. A condition in which two moving objects are changing in, or out, of step
What are the two classifications of AC generation systems? Variable-frequency and constant-frequency
What frequency is used for AC power generation on aircraft? 400 hertz
How is voltage induced in a brush-type generator? DC from an integral exciter generator is passed through windings on the rotor
What are the three generators that make up a brushless AC generator? A permanent magnet generator, an AC exciter generator, and the main AC generator
What weak point was eliminated by the design of a brushless-type generator? Arcing (which more easily occurs in rarefied air)
What are the two main components of an AC generator? Rotor assembly and stator
What three components make up the stator? PMG armature, exciter field, and main armature windings
What are the two functions of the CSD governor system? To control the drive output speed and equalize the load between generators operating in parallel
If CSD output rotation drives the generator below 365 Hz, what component removes the generator from the bus? Underspeed switch
If the CSD temperature rises to an overheat condition, what should be done to prevent further damage? Disconnect the CSD
What is installed on most IDGs to provide for easier installation and removal? A quick attach-detach clamp
What are the typical functions of a GCU? Voltage regulation, frequency and load control, real and reactive load division, over/underexcitation protection, over/underfrequency protection, open phase protection, reverse power protection, differential current protection, engine underspeed protect
How is voltage regulation and current limiting accomplished in the GCU? By varying the generator excitation field
How does the frequency and load controller for each generator system regulate the frequency of the generator CSD? By controlling the magnetic trim head governor on the CSD
What are the internal components of a battery? Plates, separators, and electrolyte
What are the primary causes of premature failure of a lead-acid battery? Abuse, overcharge, low solution, undercharge, and mountings
What is the fundamental unit of the nickel-cadmium battery? The cell
How are nickel-cadmium cells constructed? By inserting positive and negative plates in plastic cases with nylon and cellophane separators
When does a nickel-cadmium battery’s electrolyte reach its maximum level? When the battery is fully charged
How are motors classified? By voltage, current used (AC or DC), and methods of motor excitation
How can the direction of rotation for a series motor be changed? By reversing the current flow in a field winding or reversing current flow in the armature
What advantage does the series motor have over other types of motors? It operates on AC or DC excitation
How is the field winding of a shunt motor connected with the armature? In parallel
What type of T-R is used to charge a nickel-cadmium battery in many aircraft? Charging T-R
What is another name for a T-R? Converter
Define matter. Any substance that occupies space and has weight.
Since liquids and gases have many properties in common, how are they frequently classified? As fluids.
All matter is made up of what? Molecules.
Which matter has the property of resisting changes in shape when a force is applied? Solid.
When sufficient force to a solid causes distortion, the solid is said to have exceeded what? Its elastic limit.
Which factors affect the amount of expansion and contraction of a solid? The amount of temperature change and the expansion characteristics of the solid.
What are the most outstanding characteristics of a liquid? Its ability to conform to the shape of its containing vessel and that it has a free surface.
For a liquid to transmit a pushing force, what condition must exist first? It must be completely enclosed in a container.
What would cause a cylinder of air to increase in pressure when placed in the sun? The air (gas) expands as its temperature increases, and since it is confined by the cylinder, its pressure will increase
What is one of the main differences in the characteristics of gases when compared to liquids? Gases are compressible while liquids are not
State the basic principle of Pascal’s Law. When a fluid is confined and force is applied, this force (pressure) is transmitted equally to all points in the system
Under what conditions does Pascal’s Law not apply to fluids? Pascal’s Law does not apply to fluids in motion
State the basic principle of Boyle’s Law. If the pressure on a confined gas varies, its volume will vary inversely in the same proportion as long as the temperature does not change
Using Charles’s Law, explain the effect of heating a gas in a cylinder that has a movable piston. Heating a confined gas will cause an expansion (volume increase) in direct proportion to its temperature change, thus causing the piston to move
What is another name for the Boyle’s–Charles’s law? General Gas Law
What is the mechanical advantage ratio if a 60-pound force is used to raise a 240-pound weight? 4:1
What is the mechanical advantage ratio if a 3-pound force is used to raise 99 pounds? 33:1
A 150-pound weight is placed on a 10-square-inch piston and is then lifted by a force applied to a 2-square-inch piston. What force is required on the small piston, and what is the mechanical advantage? 30 pounds of force, 5:1
A 20-pound force on a 3-square-inch piston can lift how much weight on a 12-square-inch piston? What is the mechanical advantage? 80 pounds weight, 4:1
What is the pressure (psi) on a surface 12 square inches in area and supporting a weight of 216 pounds? 18 psi
How far will an 8-square-inch piston move if a 2-square-inch piston moves 8 inches? 2 inches
What characteristic of a fluid determines its resistance to flow? Viscosity
What effect does an orifice have on fluid-flow when compared to a venturi? An orifice will cause more turbulence and thus more energy loss than a venturi because it is not streamlined
How can resistance to flow be reduced? By streamlining the flow
What pressure difference can be observed during fluid-flow through a venturi? There is a pressure drop at the narrow opening (throat) of a venturi as the rate of flow of the fluid increases at this point The pressure will increase again after passing through the throat
How much fluid should a reservoir hold? Enough fluid to supply the normal operating needs of the system, along with an additional amount to replace fluid lost through minor leakage
Why do nonpressurized reservoirs have space above the fluid? To allow the fluid to purge itself of air bubbles that are picked up from the system
What prevents foreign material from entering the reservoir during servicing? A wire screen
What are the two main reasons for pressurizing a reservoir? First, it stops the fluid from foaming at high altitudes; second, it ensures a positive supply of fluid to the pumps.
How do you service a pressurized hydraulic reservoir with fluid? Use a portable servicing cart.
What unit in the pressurized hydraulic reservoir pressurizes the hydraulic fluid to 5 psi? A piston spring
To service or perform maintenance on an air-pressurized reservoir, what is the first thing you must do? Depressuirrize the reservoir
Name three functions of the air-pressurized reservoir pressure regulator. It regulates the pressure to the reservoir, acts like a relief valve, and has a differential valve to allow equalization of pressures between outside air and air inside the reservoir
How are pumps classified? By their displacement (volume) output
What two purposes does the hand pump serve? It can be used as an emergency source of pressure or as an auxiliary source of pressure for ground-checking the operation of the system units
When the hand pump handle is on the retraction stroke, which check valve is closed? The inlet check valve
What indicates that either check valve inside the hand pump has malfunctioned? The hand pump will become completely inoperative
If a third check valve is installed, what could be the problem if fluid is only sent into the system on the extension stroke? The inlet check valve is malfunctioning
What is a drawback of a constant-volume pump? As long as the pump rotates, the fluid-flow it produces will eventually build up pressure high enough in the confined area to burst the lines and container
What is the thinned portion on the drive shaft of a gear-type pump called? Shear section
On a vane-type pump, what keeps the vanes against the housing wall? Springs
In the constant-volume piston pump, what drives the cylinder block? Universal link
Why does a constant-volume piston pump always have a constant intake and output of fluid? There are always pistons somewhere between the upper and lower position
What does the suction boost pump do for engine-driven pumps? Ensures the engine pumps get an adequate supply of fluid
What regulates pressure in a variable-volume pump? An integral flow control valve (compensator)
What is the main difference between a Vickers stroke-reduction pump and a constant-volume pump? The angle between the drive shaft and the cylinder block
What position is the Vickers pump’s cylinder block and yoke in when the system is at 0 psi? The extreme angle position, full flow
Do the pistons have a stroke when the Vickers pump reaches the zero flow point? No
What are the two major component groups of the Kellogg pump? The rotating group and the pressure-compensating group
What determines the length of the Kellogg pump’s piston stroke? The angle setting of the cam plate
What is the purpose of the creep plates in Stratopower pumps? Cooler operation
Describe the pistons of the Stratopower pump. The pistons have fairly large hollow centers connected with cross-drilled holes
Which way would you turn the adjusting screw on the Stratopower pump to increase pressure? Clockwise
What is the purpose of a hydraulic motor? To convert hydraulic pressure into rotary mechanical motion
What can be used to control the speed of a hydraulic motor? Flow control valve
Explain the principle of a jackscrew. The screw remains stationary and the nut turns
What is the purpose of an accumulator in a hydraulic system? To store a volume of fluid under pressure, provide space for thermal expansion, and act as a cushion against pressure surges.
What is the most common type of accumulator used? Cylindrical type
Which accumulator has a drilled passageway in the piston for lubrication? Piston
Where is the air-servicing valve located on the piston accumulator? At the bottom of the accumulator
What is the piston accumulator is serviced with? Dry air or nitrogen
Which accumulator has four separate chambers? Self-displacing accumulator
What is the only moving part of a self-displacing accumulator? The piston
In the self-displacing accumulator system, where is the relief valve located? Between the pressure line and return line
What are the three basic parts of a filter assembly? Head, element, and bowl
Which part of the filter assembly is mounted to the aircraft? Head
What does micron rating mean? The amount of dirt or contaminates that can be filtered out
What are the two ways fluids can usually flow through a filter assembly? Normal flow and bypass flow
How are hydraulic manifolds designed? To conserve space in the aircraft and permit ease of removing and replacing components
Why is it physically impossible to install the wrong valve in a manifold? Alignment pins make it physically impossible to install the wrong valve
What is the purpose of an actuating cylinder? To transform fluid pressure into a mechanical force
What does tandem mean? One behind the other
How many pistons are in a tandem actuator? Two
What is the purpose of the internal snubber actuator? To reduce damage to mechanisms by preventing the actuator from slamming into its end of travel with great force
Where is the main system relief valve normally installed in a hydraulic system? Between the pressure and return lines
What is the purpose of a selector valve? To control and direct the flow of hydraulic fluid
What is the advantage of a slide selector valve over the poppet type? Its ability to meter fluid
What is the purpose of a check valve? To allow free flow in one direction and no flow in the other direction
What are the different types of automatic check valves? Ball, cone, and flapper (gate) types
Which type of check valve is used primarily in low-pressure systems, such as the air pressurized reservoir system? Flapper check valve
What order of events do sequence valves set? Branches of hydraulic circuit
What is the purpose of the pressure regulator besides maintaining pressure within a predetermined range? Permit the pump to turn without resistance
What component is used in systems to limit the speed of movement of such items as wing flaps and landing gear? Restrictors
Where is a restrictor check valve usually installed? In the alternating line that carries fluid from the cylinder
What names are commonly used for the manually operated shutoff valves? Globe and needle
What are the parts of a motor-operated shutoff valve? An electric motor, a slide, valve body, limit switches, and an indicator
What is installed in the hydraulic system to prevent total fluid loss? A hydraulic fuse
How is internal leakage of a shuttle valve usually repaired? By removing the unit and flushing it with clean hydraulic fluid
What is another name for the supply section of a basic hydraulic system? Suction manifold
Which section of a basic hydraulic system contains all the lines and units starting with the pump to the selector valve? The pressure manifold
What are the four units of a hand pump system? A reservoir, hand pump, actuator, and a manual shutoff valve
How much pressure is required to lift 2,300 pounds using an actuator with 2 square inches of working area? 1,150 psi
What would happen to a constant-volume pump hydraulic system if there were no relief valves? The pressure would build up to the point where the tubing would rupture or damage system units
In order to properly design a hydraulic system, what must be considered? The pressure needed to operate the system
What is the disadvantage of a constant-volume pump hydraulic system, which has a relief valve but does not have any components to relieve the pump’s workload? After a few hours of constant load, the pump would probably fail
What pressure does the pressure regulator and pressure switch maintain? The pressure between two designed pressure limits
Where does fluid-flow go when a regulator is kicked out? Returns to the reservoir through the regulator bypass
What does the term “operating range” mean? The difference between the two design limits
What is the main purpose of the accumulator in the regulator or pressure switch controlled system? Prevent rapid loss of pressure due to fluid leaks in the return lines, which would cause continuous kick in and kick out
What is the purpose of the shock strut? Carry the burden of supporting the aircraft and absorb the shock of landing
What two telescoping cylinders form the shock strut? Inner cylinder and outer cylinder
What component connects the inner and outer cylinder to maintain correct alignment? Torsion links
What truck assembly component prevents the truck from porpoising? Snubber
What is the function of the shimmy damper? Provide tracking of the aircraft during turns and prevent oscillation or shimmy during landing, takeoff, and taxiing
What types of steer damper units are used? Single-piston and vane
What holds the control valve in the neutral position when steering is not used? Centering spring
How is the sliding spool of the steering metering valve positioned? By mechanical inputs into the valve
What ensures that the sliding spool returns to the neutral position? By centering spring
How is system pressure blocked off in steering operation? By the position of the sliding spool
How many seconds may the LG take for full retraction or extension from the time the control lever is moved until the gear is retracted (or extended) and the wheel well doors are again closed? 10 to 40 seconds
What position must the landing gear control handle be in before emergency extension of the landing gear? DN position
What prevents the nose gear from slamming down during the emergency extension sequence? Snubbing action of the nose gear actuator
What are the two types of landing gear position indicators used on aircraft? Green light or tab-type
On tab-type indicator systems, what is displayed when the gear is in transit or until the gear reaches the full up or down and locked position? Diagonal stripes or barber poles
How is the landing gear warning horn operated? By switches installed on the throttle quadrant
What term describes a gradual loss of braking action due to overheating? Brake fade
What causes the multiple-disc brake’s piston to move inward? Hydraulic pressure
Define OFF clearance. The space between the discs when the brakes are not applied
How is emergency hydraulic pressure supplied to the brake system? By the aircraft emergency hydraulic system or accumulator
In the antiskid system, when does the shaft speed decrease in relation to flywheel speed? When enough excessive braking is applied to create a skidding tendency
What is the heart of the integral brake system? PBCV
What ensures rapid application and release of brakes? Debooster
What brake system consists of a slave-metering valve remotely controlled by a master cylinder? Slave brake system
What metals are used for aircraft wheels? Aluminum and/or magnesium alloy
How is the removable flange held in place? A retainer ring
What is the purpose of the alignment marks on split wheels? To ensure the wheel halves are put together in their proper relationship
At what temperature will the fusible metal core of the thermal plugs melt? 300 °F
What type of wheel bearings are used on aircraft? The tapered roller type
What makes up a complete bearing set? Bearing cone, tapered rollers, and a retaining cage
What part of the bearing holds the assembly together? The cage
Which technical manual provides information concerning aircraft tires and tubes? 4T–1–3, Inspection, Maintenance Instructions—Storage and Disposition of Aircraft Tires and Inner Tubes
What are the three main parts of an aircraft tire? Tread and sidewall, cord body, and beads
Describe aircraft tire tread. A layer of rubber (or wire, fabric and rubber combination) on the outer circumference of a tire, which serves as the wearing surface
What part of an aircraft tire gives the tire its structural strength? The cord body or carcass
The ply rating of a tire is an index of what factor? The tire strength (not necessarily the number of cord plies in a tire)
Why are vent holes or venting devices installed in tires? To prevent pressure buildup and separation of the cord plies or tread rubber
How is a tubeless tire identified? By the word “tubeless” on the tire sidewall
List the two methods used to determine allowable tire wear. Colored wear indicators and tread groove method
What are the wear criteria on a retreadable aircraft tire less than 24 inches outside diameter? Remove the tire when wear reaches the bottom of any tread groove for a continuous length of 4 inches or when wear exposes top fabric layer
Where might you find the allowable cut limits of a given tire? Embossed on the sidewall of the tire
How does direct sunlight affect tire pressure? Tires in direct sunlight experience a somewhat higher pressure than those in shaded areas
Created by: theredstar