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urinary system

A & P II Chapter 14 The urinary system

Afferent glomerular arterioles Arterioles that carry blood into the renal corpuscles glomerulus
Bowman's capsule Part of the renal corpuscle that surrounds the glomerulus
Collecting ducts in the kidney that collect fluid from the distal convoluted tubules and carry it to the renal pelvis
Distal convoluted tubule the last tubular part of the nephron before it enters the collecting duct
Efferent glomerular arterioles Arterioles that carry blood away from the glomerulus after it has been filtered in the renal corpuscle
Glomerular capillaries The tuft of capillaries at the center of the renal corpuscle
Glomerular capillaries Urine production begins when plasma is filtered out of the capillaries and into Bowman's capsular
Glomerulus The tuft of capillaries at the center of the renal corpuscle. AKA glomerular capillaries
Hilus of the kidney The indented area on the medial sides of the kidneys where blood and lymph vessels, nerves, and the ureters enter and leave the kidney
Kidney The organ responsible for removing soluble waste from the blood stream through the process of urine.
Nephron The basic functioning unit of the kidney
Peritubular capillaries Capillaries in the network that surrounds the tubular part of the nephron of the kidney
Peritubular capillaries eventually converge to form the renal vein.
Peritubular capillaries are involved in the processes of tubular secretion and re-absorption
Proximal convoluted tubule The first part of the nephron of the kidney nephron.
Renal Artery The branch of the abdominal aorta that carries blood to the kidney. It enters the kidney at the hilus.
Renal capsule Outer fibrous covering of the kidney
Renal corpuscle The first structure of the nephron. It consists of the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule.
Renal cortex The outer portion of the kidney where renal corpuscles and the convoluted tubules of the nephrons are located
Renal medulla The inner portion of the kidney where the loop of Henle makes its U-turn and collecting ducts travel to the renal pelvis
Renal pelvis The collecting point for urine as it leaves the collecting tubules before entering the ureters
Renal vein The vein that carries purified blood away from the kidneys to the caudal vena cava
right kidney is more cranial
kidney functions maintain homeostasis
kidneys maintain homeostasis through filtration, reabsorption, secretion
kidneys maintain homeostasis through fluid and acid-base balance regulation
kidneys maintain homeostasis through production of hormones
renal pelvis funnel-shaped area inside hilus
renal pelvis forms beginning of the ureter
renal pelvis lined with transitional epithelium
thick layer of perirenal fat usually surrounds the kidneys
perirnal fat protects kidneys from the pressure exerted by surrounding organs
renal cortex outer portion of the kidney
renal medulla inner portion around the renal pelvis
calyx cuplike extension of the renal pelvis into which the medullary pyramids fit
calyces act as funnels to direct fluid into renal pelvis
each nephron consists of a renal corpuscle, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule
renal corpuscle located in renal cortex
renal corpuscle function is to filter blood in first stage of urine production
renal corpuscle is composed of glomerulus tuft of capillaries
renal corpuscle fluid filtered out of blood is called glomerular filtrate
proximal convoluted tubule is the continuation of capsular space of Bowman's capsule
proximal convoluted tubule is lined with cuboidal epithelial cells with a brush border on the lumen side
PCT is a continuations of capsular space of Bowman's capsule
PCT is lined with cuboidal epithelial cells with a brush boarder
PCT twisting path through the cortex
Glomerular filtrate in the PCT tubule is called tubular filtrate
Loop of Henle descends from PCT into medulla, turns, heads upward into cortex
Loop of Henle descends from PCT into medulla then makes a U-turn and heads upward into the cortex
descending loop has epithelial cells similar to those of PCT
at the bottom of the loop of Henle the cells are flat simple squamous epithelial cells and lose their brush boarder
Ascending loop wall becomes thicker
Distal convoluted tubule is a continuation of the ascending Loop of Henle
Distal convoluted tubule from all nephrons in the kidney empty into collecting ducts
DCT carry tubular filtrate through medulla
What empties into the renal pelvis distal convoluted tubule
primary site of action of ADH and regulation of potassium an pH (acid-base balance) occur in the distal convoluted tubule
How does the blood supply enter the kidney through the renal artery at the hilus
Afferent glomerular arteriole carry blood into the glomerular capillaries of renal corpusule
Glomerular capillaries filter some of the plasma of the blood and put it in the capsular space of Bowman's capsule
Efferent glomerular arterioles receive blood from glomerular capillaries
Efferent glomerular arteries divide to form the peritubular capillaries
peritubular capillaries surround the rest of the neuron
Oxygen transfer to the cells of the nephron takes place in the peritubular capillaries
tubular reabsorption and secretion takes place in the peritubular capillaries
peritubular capillaries converge to form venules
venules form larger veins in the peritubular
larger veins form the renal vein
the renal vein leaves the kidney at the hilus and joins the abdominal portion of the caudal vena cava
glomerular capillaries contain many large fenestrations in capillary endothelium
fenestrations are not large enough to allow blood cells or large proteins to pass through
high blood pressure in the glomerular capillaries forces some plasma out of the capillaries and into the capsular space of Bowman's capsule
glomerular filtration rate is how fast plasma is filtered through glomerulus
Bowman's space around the glomerulus and inside Bowman's capsule
Plasma like fluid is filtered from capillary blood into bloodstream through glomerular filtration membrane
The glomerular filtration membrane consists of 3 layers
The layers of the glomerular filtration membrane are endothelium, basement membrane, epithelial podocytes
the fluid that is filtered through the glomerular filtration membrane is called filtrate and forms the primary urine
the filtrate then diffuses across Bowman's space
from Bowman's space the filtrate goes to the tubule system of the nephron
in the tubules some substances are added to the filtrate as part of the urine formation and some substances are re-absorbed
substances that are re-absorbed out of the filtrate and back into the blood
the nephron tubule is divided into 4 segments; they are proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule and collecting tubes
proximal convoluted tubule is where almost all of the absorption of nutritional substances takes place
loop of Henle re-absorbs water and ions from the urine and plays a role in controlling the concentration of urine
distal convoluted tubule regulates potassium, sodium and pH and where further dilution of the urine take place
collecting tubules joins with several tubules to collect the filtrate and where final sodium regulation takes place
each kidney is supplied with blood by a single renal artery
renal artery enters through the hilus
the hilus branches off into afferent arterioles
blood flows into the glomerulus from the afferent arterioles
blood flows out of the glomerulus thru the efferent arteriols
afferent and efferent arterioles regulate glomerular capillary pressure by selectively dilating or constricting
the kidneys venius blood is the cleanest blood in the body
the kidney venius blood now filtered flows from the glomerulus via the efferent arterioles
from the efferent arterioles the blood goes into the peritubular capillary network
a low pressure re-absorptive system surround all portions of the tubules
low pressure system surrounding tubules allow rapid movement of solutes and water to move between the fluid in the tubule and the blood in the capillaries
the peritubular capillaries re-join to form the venus channels by which blood leaves the kidneys
blood leaves the kidneys and empties into the inferior vena cava
sodium in tubular filtrate attaches to carrier protein and moves it into the cytoplasm of the proximal convoluted tubules epithelial cell
glucose and amino acids attach to the carrier protein as the sodium and follow sodium into the cell by passive transport
sodium is actively pumped out of the cell into interstitial fluid and moves into peritubular capillaries
glucose and amino acids move from the PCT cell into the interstitial fluid by passive difusion
sodium ions are reabsorbed in the ascending loop of Henle and DCT
potassium and calcium reabsorption take place in the PCT, ascending loop of Henle and DCT
calcium moves from the filtrate under the influence of Vit D, parathyroid hormone and calcitonin
magnesium is reabsorbed from the PCT, ascending loop of Henle and the collecting duct
parathyroid hormone release increases the reabsorption of magnesium
Chloride diffuses from tubular filtrate into the epithelial cells and interstitial space
Cl- diffuses from filtrate to epithelial cells in response to electrical imbalance created by Na+ removal
secretion primarily occurs in the distal convoluted tubule
hydrogen, potassium and ammonia are eliminated by secretion
some medicines are eliminated from the body by secretion
urine volume regulation is determined by the amount of water contained in the tubular filtrate when it reaches renal pelvis
Created by: catsmeow03