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Ocular Pharma #1

Pharmaceutical Characteristics & Delivery

What is the normal pH of tear film? 7.4
Define Osmolarity. Concentration of solids (solutes) in a liquid. If there is evaporation of the liquid, the osmolarity will increase because of an increase in ratio of solids to liquids.
Define Tonicity. Measurement of the osmotic pressure. Normal is 0.9. Above this is hypertonic, but for clinical purposes, above 1.8.
What bacteria is a well known contaminant of eye gtts? Pseudomonas
What organism is a well known contaminant of homemade SCL solution? Acanthamoeba- a protozoan
Define Bacteriocidal. Kills cells or inhibits their reproduction. (BAK)
Name several causes for drugs to depredate? Sunlight, heat, oxidation
Which common eye drop preservative causes frequent corneal toxicity especially with overuse? BAK- benzalkonium chloride
Name two "disappearing" preservatives. Purite, Sodium perborate
How does increased viscosity help? Makes a product thicker, prolongs contact time of the drug.
What are the two vehicles used in eye ointments? Lanolin and petrolatum
What is the difference between a suspension and a solution? A solution- the active drug is DISSOLVED in a liquid medium. Shaking not needed. A Suspension- the drug is finely divided and suspended (not dissolved) in the liquid. Requires shaking (25-30X)
What are the downsides of eye drops? Imprecise delivery, short contact time.
How many times do you need to shake a solution? A suspension? Solution- none. Suspension- 25-30X
What parts of the eye does fluorescein stain? Only stains corneal defects
What parts of the eye does rose bengal stain? Stains both corneal and conjunctival defects.
What parts of the eye does lissamine green stain? Stains both corneal and conjunctival defects.
What is required for a generic drug? Only that the bioequivalency is the same as brand drugs.
What is not required for a generic drug and what are some differences? Actually measuring this bioequivelancy... using different buffers, preservatives, etc, bottles and tops may be different.
Red top (cap color) eye drops indicate what? Cycloplegics or mydriatics
Green top eye drop indicate what? Miotics
Yellow or blue top eye drops indicate what? Beta Blocker, glaucoma drops
Approximately what percentage of patients have poor compliance? 30-50%
What is anaphylaxis? A severe, potentially life threatening whole body allergic reaction to an antigen which has PREVIOUSLY sensitized the body. Can be drugs, insect bites, food allergies, etc.
What are the symptoms of anaphylaxis? Onset within first 20 minutes. Difficulty breathing and swallowing due to tissue swelling, rapid, weak pulse, lower blood pressure, deep burning pain, slurred speech, anxiety, confusion, hives, itching.
What kind of history would make you concerned that a patient may be prone to anaphylaxis? History of hives, allergy, hay fever
How do you treat a patient who feel faint? Lie them down, feet elevated, head down
What is an idiosyncratic reaction? A severe allergic reaction, which occurs rarely and unpredictably with no history as in anaphylaxis.
**What would an Rx look like for Mr. Barack Obama? Give him 30 of the 5 mgm Valium tablets to take by mouth as needed for anxiety, plus one at bedtime. 3 refills. No generics. **Do this on paper
NO STUDYSTACK ANSWER. Just a reminder. *Make sure you are familiar with the instructions and techniques for instilling eye gtts or ointment *Reminder
What is the advantage of an emulsion? They require no shaking and give UNIFORM dosage with each drop.
Can you name several other techniques or devices that prolong drug contact time? Punctal occlusion (by hand or with punctal plugs), punctal release (Lacrisert), cotton pledgets or Weck-cel's in the cul-de-sac, collagen shilds or SCL (soaked in medications)
Define Bacteriostatic. Inhibits the GROWTH of the cells. (EDTA)
Created by: Leequa