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Exanthematous diseases

why is the history important? many viral exanthems look similar, so a diagnosis is difficult without a corresponding history!
caused by a single strande dRNA virus in the family of paramyxoviridae. enters nasoendothelium and spreads and multiplies by reticuloendothelial system. presents with fever and three C's: cough, coryza (runny nose), conjunctivitis Rubeola (measles)
incubation phase of measles? 10 to 12 days with litlte to no sign of illness
prodromal phase length of measles? 3-5 days of cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, koplik spots, high fever.
final stage of measles? final stage: maculopapular eruption in a head to toe distribution as the fever is resolving.
gray white papules of the buccal mucosa in a patient with rubella koplik spots
has a resurgence of measles occured in the 1960s? yes. cases in 2013 as well.
measles complications? pneumonia, bronchitis, otitis media, gastroenteritis, myocarditis, and encephalitis, neurologic complications.
main complications of measles? neurologic complications are more common than in any other exanthematous illness.
prevention of measles? MMR vaccine combination give an 12 months and 4-6 years.
another name for Rubella? german measles, 3 day measles.
caused by RNA virus from familiy of togaviridae. clinically milder than measles wit ha prodrome of low grade fever, headache, rhinorrhea, malaise, myalgias, sore throat, lymphadenopathy, and cough 2-5 days before the exanthem appers. rubella
skin findings of rubella? erythematous to "rose pink" macules and papules that become confluent presenting in a cephalocaudal manner.
what is a major goal of rubella immunization (available as MMR combination vaccine)? to prevent spread to pregnant women. fetal infectoin may lead to miscarriage, stillbirth, and/or congenital rubella syndrome.
erythema infectiosum (fifth disease) is caused by... parvovirus B19 (DNA virus).
fifth disease most prevalent in... school aged children. spread through respiratory droplet. may occur ear round but most common in late winter and spring.
erythema infectiosum prodrome? low grade fever, headache, and URI symptoms (infectious stage)
describe the 3 stages of rash in erythema infectiosum 1. facial flushing ("slapped cheeks") appearance. 2. trunk and proximal extremities are quickly covered in a diffuse, macular erythema. central clearing of eruption gives a lacy, reticulated apperarance. 3. may wax and wane over 1-3 weeks.
in erythema infectiosum, which areas are spared? palms and soles of feet
caused by HHV6 or 7-herpesviridae family. DNA virus preferentially infected activated T cells enhancing natural killer cell activity and induction of numerous cytokines. may become latent following primary infection ad reactivate during altered immunity. roseola infantum (sixth disease)
peak incidence of sixth disease? between 6 and 12 months.
roseol ainfantum clinical manifestations? 3-5 days of high fiver (101-106), inicial absence o fphysical findings sufficient to explain the degree of fever. as fever resolves, the rash appears on teh trunk and then spreads to limbs and face. erythematous, blanchable macules and papules
when does the rash dissolve in roseola? 1-3 days
caused by herpes virus family. spread by respiratory dorplets or direct contact iwth lesions, incubation period 10-21 days. clinical manifest: primary disease: prodrome of fever, chills, malaise, headache, myalgias, and arthralgies 24 to 48 hours before varicella (chicken pox). rash starts as red macule or papule that progresses to the vesicular stage- classically the "dew drop on a rose petal"
what is one characteristic of chickenpox? the simultaneous presence of lesions in various stages of evolution
when is the vaccine for chickenpox given 12 months and 4-6 years. has resulted in a decline of varicella related infections and hospitalizations
enteroviral (picornavirus-RNA virus) exanthem, coxsackievirus A or B (fecal oral spread). summer and fall seasonal presentation, presents with fever, malaise, and a characteristic exanthem at the same time. hand foot and mouth disease
in hand foot and mouth disease, where do grey white vesicular lesions appear? on palms of hand and dorsum of feet, maculopapular eruption on the buttocks. there are also vesicles and erosions on the tongue, palate, buccal mucosa, and anterior tonsillar pillars
in hand foot and mouth disease, painful erosions and vesicle sin the mouth may lead to... anorexia and dehydration
Created by: aferdo01