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Ch. 27 sec H

infection control vocabulary

airborne transmission transmission of microorganisms by evaporated droplets or dust particles moving through the air
bacteria(sing. bacterium) single-celled, microscopic organisms. some are beneficial to humans, while others cause disease.
barriers personal protective equipment, such as gloves, gowns, masks, and goggles, designed to prevent contact with the blood or body fluids of patients
carrier a person who has a disease that can be passed on to others but who does not display signs or symptoms of the disease
causative agent in the chain of infection, the pathogen that causes the infection or disease
chain of infection the process by which an infectious disease is transmitted to and develops in a persons body.
clean referring to an object or area not contaminated by pathogens, though not necessarily sterile.
communicable refers to a disease that can be spread from one person to another, either directly or through an animal or object; infectious
contact transmission transfer of microorganisms by contact with body surfaces or contaminated objects.
contaminated not clean; dirtied by contact with living microorganisms.
cultural awareness the ability to identify and include the patients cultural needs in the plan of care.
dirty referring to an object or area that has been contaminated by pathogens.
disinfection a cleaning process that destroys most microorganisms through the use of certain chemicals or boiling water.
droplet transmission transmission of microorganisms through the air by sneezing, talking, or coughing.
exposure unprotected contact with pathogens or material that may be contaminated, such as medical instruments or body fluids.
flora microorganisms normally present in or on the human body.
fomite any object that is contaminated with pathogens and can transmit disease.
fungi(sing. fungus) microscopic, single- celled or multicelled plants that can cause disease.
infection the invasion and growth of disease-causing microorganisms in the body
infectious referring to a disease that can spread; communicable
isolation specific procedures and precautions designed to prevent a patient from infecting others or being infected by others; may involve housing the patient in a separate room.
medical asepsis practices and procedures to maintain a clean environment by removing or destroying disease-causing organisms; also called clean technique.
microorganisms living things so small that they can only be seen with a microscope; also called microbes or, more commonly, germs.
mucus sticky substance secreted by mucous membranes in the lunges, nose, and other parts of the body, which provides lubrication and helps to trap and kill microorganisms.
nosocomial infection an infection acquired while in a health care facility.
pathogens microorganisms, such as bacteria or viruses, that can cause disease.
portal of entry in the chain of infection, the means by which the pathogen enters the host body.
portal of exit in the chain of infection, the means by which the pathogen leaves the reservoir.
protozoa(sing. protozoan) single-celled, microscopic animals, usually living in water, that can cause disease.
reservoir of the agent in the chain of infection, the place where a pathogen (agent) can live and reproduce, such as in a person who has the disease, an animal or a formite.
route of transmission in the chain of infection, the way a pathogen is transmitted from the reservoir to the new hosts body.
sharps needles, scalpels, razor blades and any other sharp, potentially dangerous object used in a health care facility.
standard precautions guidelines applying to the care of all patients, no matter what their known infection status is; every patient is treated as if he or she were potentially infectious.
staph(staphylococcus) a type of bacteria that is a common cause of infection.
sterile free from all microorganisms, both pathogenic and nonpathogenic.
sterilization a cleaning process that kills all microorganisms, including spores.
strep(streptococcus) a type of bacteria that is a common cause of chest and throat infections.
susceptible host in the chain of infection, the host is the individual who acquires the pathogen; if the host is susceptible, or unable to resist the pathogen, the pathogen begins to reproduce and causes infection.
terminal cleaning thorough cleaning of the patient unit after the patient is discharged.
transmission-based precautions isolation precautions used when caring for patients having a known contagious disease cause by an identified pathogen.
virus the smallest known living infectious agent.
Created by: sno413