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|Primary Economic Activities
|Activities that use natural resources directly. Agriculture is the principal example of this
|Deliberate modification of Earth's surface through cultivation of plants and rearing of animals to obtain sustenance or economic gain.
|Origins of Agriculture
|Before the invention of agriculture, all humans probably obtained food through hunting and gathering. These hunter-gatherers probably began to notice that plants could be cultivated. There were several hearths for the origins of the agriculture.
|Hunting and Gathering
|The subsistence "farming: in which the people would forage for food/hunt animals like fish and wild bears to survive.
|An area located in the crescent-shaped zone near the Southeastern Mediterranean coast, including Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, and Turkey, which was once a lush environment and of the first hearths of domestication and thus agricultural activity.
|Extensive vs. Intensive Agriculture
|Extensive: Characterized by low inputs of land per unit land area Intensive: Involves effective and efficient use of labor on small plots of land to maximize crop yield
|Capital-Intensive vs. Labor-Intensive Agriculture
|Capital Intensive: Uses mechanical goods such as machinery, tools, vehicles, and facilities to produce large amounts of agricultural goods- requiring very little human labor Labor Intensive: requires large levels of labor to be successful
|Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
|Form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expand a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land
|Extensive Subsistence Agriculture
|The crops/animals grown are used nearly exclusively for local or family consumption on large acres of land and minimal labor input per acre
|Movements of livestock according to seasonal patterns, generally lowland areas in the winter, and highland areas in the spring
|The Boserup Hypothesis
|Population growth compels subsistence farmers to consider new farming methods that produce enough food to take care of the additional people
|Industrial Revolution's Effect of Agriculture
|Improved methods of cultivation, harvesting, and storage of farm produce/Increased productivity and distribution- more people could be fed because of the higher-yield cultivation techniques/Encouraged shift from subsistence farming to commercial farming
|The Green Revolution
|Development of higher-yield and fast-growing crops through increased technology, pesticides, and fertilizers transferred from the developed to alleviate the problem of food supply to those regions of the globe
|Negative Impacts of the Green Revolution
|Increased food security provided by Western agricultural techniques and technologies had major downsides for local agricultures in LDCs New machinery and fertilizers (chemicals) devastated local land, may lead to future biodiversity problems
|Diffusion of an idea or innovation that is not suitable for the environment in which it is diffused into
|Characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations
|Commercial Livestock Production
|Two major forms: Livestock ranching- commercial grazing over an extensive area and dairying-raising cattle for long-term production of milk. Widespread through much of Australia, western North America, South America, southern Africa, and western Asia.
|Commercial Grain Farming
|Mass planting and harvesting of grain crops, such as wheat, barley, and millet.
|Plantations that grow crops: sugarcane and coffee. Widespread throughout the tropics, such as Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and Central and South America. Many crops are not native to the environment and are almost always exported to other countries.
|Mixed and Specialty Crop Farming
|Largely depends on climate. Produce mixed and specialty crops. Truck farming involves large scale production of particular fruits or vegetables for sale in climate regions. Different types of crops grown, and diverse specialty crops grown.