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Zoning

Zoning types and terms

QuestionAnswer
Zoning a police power of the gov, and is intended to safeguard the health, welfare and safety of the general public. Separate districts.
Euclidian Zoning aka "building block zoning" - most common type of zoning. Segregated LUs. A single district cannot mix land uses. Downfalls: lack of flexibility, contributes to urban sprawl. Euclidian II zoning = same LU categories, but arranged hierarchically/mixed
Cumulative Zoning An older, hierarchical method. Allows planners to mix less intensive land uses with more intensive land uses in the same district. Stipulations - Residences can only be built in LIGHT industrial districts, etc.
Exclusive Zoning aka "non-cumulative zoning" = prevailing contemporary zoning method which forbids a land use district from incorporating any developments that do not conform to its designated use. For ex, industrial districts cannot incorporate any non-industrial uses
Form-based Zoning Divides a comm into several diff districts and regulates the placement, size, form, design and appearance of buildings w/in each district. Allows for mixed use neighborhoods and diff housing types. Building envelope standards.
Transect Zoning Treats developments as a continuum consisting of six ecozones, aka habitats. First zone = wilderness (rural) area; each subsequent zone is more urbanized than the previous zone and the last = the urban core. Encourages mixed uses.
Overlay Zoning Superimposes a new zone on top of an existing land use zone and imposes add'l requirements. E.g. if a district has proven to be extremely susceptible to flooding, could implement flood overlay zone to apply special flood standards to that area.
Conditional Use Permits (CUP) aka "special-use permits" allow for land uses in zones where such land uses may be forbidden under existing ordinances. For instance, a planner may acquire a conditional-use permit in order to build residences in an industrial zone.
Flexible Zoning Allows for mixed uses and development standards within zoned districts. Represents a notable departure from more traditional zoning methods, which imposes inflexible standards. Ex = PUDs, cluster dev, performance standrs, performance zoning, point system
Floating Zones Unmapped zoning districts and are used when a comm is trying to promote a certain land use (apts, research campuses, etc) w/o actually reserving an area of land for such a use. Standards for floating zones are written in ordinance, but not shown on map
Cluster Zoning Applies strict density standards on development, but allows for much flexibility in setting lot size, setbacks, various things related to individual house lots, street layout, utility sites, etc. Can cluster dev and leave land for open space.
Performance Zoning Regulates development according to a district's floor area ratio and impervious surface coverage. In effect, rather than controlling land use, performance zoning regulates the intensity of development
Performance Standards Performance standards manage industrial land use by regulating industrial emissions, such as odor, smoke, gases, dust, heat, glare and vibration.
Point rating systems Measures proposed developments against a set of established standards, which hare normally performance-based and include point thresholds and intensity limits.
Incentive Zoning Offers developers increased development capacity if they include some kind of public benefit in the construction, such as open space or affordable housing units.
Planned Unit Development (PUD) A PUD is normally a large scale development that allows for mixed uses. Goal = better site layout design and accessible amenities. Controlled under one master plan. Often use cluster zoning. Flexible and accounts for environmental impacts of development.
Traditional Neighborhood Development TND or neotraditional development, seeks to create areas that are highly accessible to pedestrians by using urban design features from a century ago. Emphasizes walkability, ped oriented streets, diff housing typologies, mixed uses, civic centers.
Inclusionary Zoning Seeks to increase the amount of low-income housing within a comm. Through the application of incentive zoning or mandatory zoning provisions, developers are either encouraged for required to create low-income housing/affordable housing.
Upzoning and Downzoning Upzoning = increase density or intensity. Downzoning is either a) Reducing intensity (increasing min lots sizes); or b) moving from a higher order land use to a lower order land use which increases dev intensity (e.g. SF district to a MF district).
Variance Allow parcels to incorporate land uses that are forbidden under existing zoning ordinances. Not allowed unless the one requesting the variance can demonstrate that considerable hardship would result from not grading the variance.
Extraterritorial Jurisdiction (ETJ) Refers to the authority of a municipality to enforce zoning ordinances outside its jurisdiction. This power is typically bestowed by the state.
Subdivision Regulations Contain procedures for obtaining local gov approval. Cannot subdivide land until local authorities have inspected and approved a plat of proposed design. Internal design standards including lot layouts. Construction standards.
Unified Development Codes UDC - attempts to unify various zoning and subdivision regulations within a certain community and eliminate conflicts and duplications. UDC had 1) circulation standards, 2) utility standards; 3)storm water management standards
Carrying Capacity Two definitions: 1) max number of certain species that an ecosystem can support for the foreseeable future; 2) max amount of growth and dev a certain area can support based on natural env systems and community's standards for env quality.
Carrying Capacity Analysis Determine max growth based on env. conditions. Based on "change factor" (land use change or dev) and "limiting factor" (the limitations of natural resources and infrastructure). 3 types of limiting factors - Env, Physical Infrastructure, Psychological.
Subdivision Review Must be conducted before a proposed subdivision can begin construction. Two-part process: developer submits both the prelim plat and the final plat of the proposed subdivision for approval before planning committee/governing body.
Subdivision Review (cont.) During prelim plat review, committee examines basic design concepts, like road and lot layout. Final plat review focuses on more specific details, such as the precise boundaries of lots. Engineer examines engineering drawings. Final plat in public record
Subdivision Review (cont.) Final plat approved and go into public record only after developer either 1) constructs necessary improvements or 2) guarantee that the improvements will be installed w/in next 1-2 years by posting a performance bond.
Prelim Plats (1) 1) Prelim plat includes: topographic contour lines and important features, including trees, ponds, streams, veg, existing buildings and flood hazard areas
Prelim Plats (2) 2)Proposed layouts of streets and lots. 3) Utility types (water, sewer, electric, cable, etc) and their size and placement. 4)Total area that the subdivision will cover as it is phased in over the years.
Final Plats (1) Final plat much more detailed than prelim plat, incorporating precise measurements (measured in tenths of a foot), angles, bearings and used to create the legal title record for determining lot boundaries. Final plat includes:
Final Plats (2) 1) Lot and street boundaries and locations in relation to survey markers, such as iron pins, concrete monuments, etc. 2)Engineering drawings and tech docs that address issues like stormwater, water pressure, public/private facilities, and other info
Created by: jlongabaugh