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Anatomy Practical 2

____ or ____ provides most of the force for a specific movement Agonist, prime mover
_____ opposes or reverses a particular movement Antagonist
_____ adds force to a movement or reduces undesirable or unnecessary movement Synergist
_____ are _____ that immobilize a bone or muscle's origin Fixators, synergists
Lever System: In a __ class system the ___ is between the load and the ___ 1st, fulcrum, effort
Lever System: If the ___ is applied between the ___ and ____ then it is a __ class system effort, fulcrum, load, 3rd
Lever System: If the ___ is between the ___ and the effort, then it is a ____ system. load, fulcrum, 2nd
If the load is ___ from the ___ and the ___ is applied ___ to the fulcrum, then the lever operates at a _____ Because the ___ has to exceed the load and the lever can only move small loads. But it can move them at ___ speed and over a ___ distance. far, fulcrum, effort, close, mechanical disadvantage, effort, great, long
Action of orbicularis oculi CLOSES the eye
Action of zygomaticus "smile" muscle
Action of depressor anguli oris frown
Action of orbicularis oris closes the mouth/lips and protrudes lips
Action of mentalis "pout" muscle
Action of buccinator keeps food between teeth, whistling, suckling, blowing
Action of Platysma tenses skin of neck and depresses mandible slightly
Action of frontalis raises eyebrows
Action of masseter primary elevators of mandible
Action of temporalis primary elevator of mandible
Action of medial and lateral pterygoid protraction and side to side movement of mandible
Action of genioglossus sticks tongue out/ protracts it
Action of hypoglossus depresses tongue
Action of styloglossus retracts tongue
Abdominal muscles work together to ____ the organs of the ____ cavity and to ___ or ____ the trunk. They also help promote any action that needs an increased intraabdominal pressure, such as ____, ____, or ____. protect, abdominal, flex, rotate, urination, defecation, childbirth
3 Basic Functions of Nervous System: _____: Information gathered by _____ about ___ and ___ changes Sensory input, sensory receptors, internal, external
3 Basic Functions of Nervous System: _____: ____ of sensory input Integration center, interpretation
3 Basic Functions of Nervous System: ______: Activation of ____ organs to produce a response motor output, effector
The two subdivisions of the nervous system are the _____ (CNS) and the ______ (PNS). It consists of two parts, the ___ and the _____. central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, brain, spinal cord
The PNS is made up of the ___ and _____ that convey messages to or from the CNS. It has two functional divisions spinal, cranial nerves
The ____ or ____ division carries impulses from either the somatic part of the bodies ie the ___, ___, and ____ (____ afferent fibers), or the internal (visceral) organs (____ afferent fibers) to the CNS sensory, afferent, skin, skeletal muscles, bones/joints, somatic, visceral
The ____ or ____ division carries impulses from CNS to peripheral effectors. Fibers that give us conscious control of ___ muscles form the ___ or ___ nervous system, whereas fibers that innervate ___muscle, ___ muscle, & ___, form the ____ or ____ (ANS) motor, efferent, skeletal, somatic, voluntary, smooth, cardiac, glands, involuntary, autonomic
The autonomic nervous system can be further subdivided into a ____ and ____ division sympathetic, parasympathetic
Two Principle Cell Types: ____ or nerve cells: ___ cells that transmit electrical signals neurons, excitable
Two Principle Cell Types: ___ or glial cells: ____ cells (nonexcitable) neuroglia, supporting
4 Glial Cells of CNS: 1) Astrocytes 2) Microglia 3) Ependymal 4) Oligodendrocytes
2 Glial Cells of PNS: 1) Satellite Cells 2) Schwann cells
Astrocytes Most abundant glial cell; helps determine capillary permeability (binds axons and blood vessels); nourish; maintain ionic concentration (synapses)
Microglia Phagocytizes microorganisms and neuronal debris; migrate toward injured neurons
Ependymal Lines the central cavities of the brain and spinal column; may be ciliated
Oligodendrocytes Processes wrap CNS neve fibers, forming insulating myelin sheath ; branched cells
Satellite Cells surrounds neuron cell bodies inside ganglia in the PNS
Schwann Cells surrounds peripheral nerve fibers and forms myelin sheaths; vital to regeneration of damaged peripheral nerve fibers
Bundles of processes are called ___ inside the CNS and ____ outside the CNS tracts, nerves
3 Types of Neurons based on function: ____ or ____ neurons carry signals from receptors to the CNS sensory, afferent
3 Types of Neurons based on function: ____ or ____ neurons carry signals from the CNS to the effector motor, efferent
3 Types of Neurons based on function: ____ neurons or _____ are signal transfer cells inside the CNS association, interneurons
When gated channels ___ ions move through the channel along their _____ gradient. They move ___ a chemical concentration gradient from ___ to ___ concentration or along an electrical gradient towards an ____ electrical charge. open, electrochemical, down, high, low, opposite
Multipolar Neuron usually one axon with many dendrites; motor and interneurons (association neurons) are these type
Unipolar Neuron aka pseudounipolar, 1 process: peripheral and central process fuse. Sensory neurons are these type
Bipolar Neuron 2 processes: 1 axon, 1 dendrite. Very few in body, found only in eyes and ears
Cell Bodies most found in grey matter (nuclei of CNS), some found in PNS= ganglia
Nerves Bundles of axons (nerve fibers) in PNS
Tracts Bundles of axons (nerve fibers) in the CNS form white matter tracts
Sensory cell bodies Located in ganglion (ganglia=plural)
Neuroglia 10 glia to 1 neuron in brain
RMP Resting membrane potential, what there voltage is at rest (~ -70mV). More K inside cell than out, more NA outside cell than inside. Cell is negative at rest and surrounding outside more positive
Potassium in Cell We leak out more potassium than we "leak in" sodium, which is why outside is more positive and we have negative polarization in cell at rest
Depolarization reduction in membrane potential; less negative than RMP; hyperpolarization is opposite. 1st step of action potential
Graded Potentials localized, short lived/ distance signals.
Repolarization Occurs immediately, along the way, as K+ moves out of cell. During this time K+ dominantly outside and Na+ dominantly inside. Takes ATP (sodium potassium pump) for them to return to rightful place.
Axoaxonic Can send synapse in multiple directions
Neuromuscular Junction where axon and muscle cell meet, space between called synaptic cleft. Vesicles open and release neurotransmitters that bind to receptors
AcetoCholine Neurotransmitter at neuromuscular junction. Binds to muscle cells and allow them to contract. Enzyme called AcetoCholine esterase removes AcH from muscle cell to end contraction
Synapse The way an impulse or info is communicated from one nerve cell to another nerve cell or effector.
Types of Synapses: Electrical Gap junctions
Types of Synapses: Chemical Neurotransmitter vesicle release binds to receptor
Pre and Post Synaptic Neurons The first conducts impulse TOWARD syanpse, the latter conducts it AWAY
Excitatory Post Synaptic Potentials cause depolarization
Inhibitory Post Synaptic Potentials cause hyperpolarization
Created by: KAzetapi



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