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MAT chemistry

Chemistry Topics to Study for the Miller Analogies Test (MAT)

TermDefinition
absolute zero theoretical temp; coldest possible
acid pH less than 7; reacts with a base
activation energy energy that must be overcome for a chemical reaction to occur
aeration process--air mixed with a liquid
anion negatively charged ion
atom smallest chemical element made of protons, neutrons, and electrons
atomic number number of protons in the atom's nucleus
base pH more than 7; reacts with an acid
biochemistry study of chemical processes in life forms
bond attratrion between atoms that allow chemicals to form
catalyst substance that changes the rate of a reaction
cation positively charged ion
chemical reaction process that changes one chemical substance to another
colloid 1.suspension of small particles: a suspension of small particles dispersed in another substance
compound pure substance with at least 2 chemical elements
condensation change from a gas to a liquid
conductor material that allows electricity to flow
deposition settling of particles in a solution
electrolyte electrically conducive substance
entropy the degradation of the matter and energy in the universe (or a system) to an ultimate state of inert uniformity
gas state of matter in which particles have no definite volume
geochemistry chemistry of the Earth's composition
indicator compound added to a solution that changes color depending on acidity
inorganic compound nonbiological, or lacking carbon and hydrogen
insulator material that resists the flow of electricity
ion atom that has gained or lost an electron
kinetics study of the rates of chemical processes
lattice arrangement of atoms or molecules in a crystal
liquid state of matter that has a fixed volume but not a shape
mole measurement that contains 6.02 x 10 (23d power) units
molecule neutral group of atoms held together by bonds
plasma state of matter similar to gas in which some particles are ionized
precipitate formation of a solid in a solution
quark elementary particle of matter; composes protons and neutrons
reagent substance that is added to a system to get a reaction
sol suspension of solides in a liquid
solid state of matter in which molecules resist movement
solute part of the solution that is put into the solvent
solvent part of the solution that dissolves the solute
sublimation phase transition from solid to gas
triple point temperature and pressure at which 3 states of matter exist simultaneously
valence electron outermost electrons of an atom
viscosity measure of resistance of a fluid, or thickness
yield amount of product made in a chemical reaction
Avogadro, Amedeo Ital--molecular theory
Curie, Marie French-Polish--radioactivity
Lavoisier, Antoine French--father of modern chemistry
Lewis, Gilbert Amer--covalent bond ( chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms)
McMillan, Edwin Amer--transuranium element (chemical elements with atomic numbers greater than 92)
Mendeleev, Dimitri Russian--invented periodic table
Mohr, Karl German--conservation of energy principle (the total energy of an isolated system cannot change—it is said to be conserved over time)
Nobel, Alfred Swede--dynamite
Pauling, Linus Amer--Nobel Prize winner multiple times
Woodward, Robert Burns Amer organic chemist
actinide 15 metallic elements with atomic numbers 89-103
alkali metal highly reactive elements, shiny, soft, silvery
halogen series of very reactive nonmetals
isotope variant of chemical element; protons are the same but neutrons may vary
lanthanide 15 metallic elements with atomic numbers 57-71
noble gas 6 odorless, colorless gases with low reactivity
rare earth element 17 elements: lanthanides pluse scandium and yttrium
Created by: Pippin14