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Hesi A2 Practice

Study Questions

What are the 4 basic properties of life reception,metabolism, reproduction, and organization
What is reception the ability of the organism to control its actions and respond to changes in the environment
What is metabolism the process of taking in and using nutrients to produce energy and growth
What is reproduction the ability to reproduce offspring to continue the species
what is organization divides the organism into distinct parts to perform these functions
The two major types of study of the human body Anatomy and physiology
Anatomy the study of body structures
Physiology the study of body functions
Cells smallest unit of life
Tissues combination of similar cells
Organs collection of tissues working together to perform a function
Body systems organs that work together to provide a major body function
Organism the beings that result when the body systems work to maintain life
What are the major structures of a cell called organelles
List the cell structures cell membrane,plasma membrane,cytoplasm,nucleus,nucleolus,ribosomes,endoplasmic reticulum,golgi apparatus,mitochondria, lysosomes, centrioles, microvilli, cilia, flagella (sperm), chromatin and chromosomes
3 main parts of a cell Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus
Function of: Plasma Membrane Outside Boundary of the cell
Cytoplasm Living internal material of cells
Nucleus Brain of the cell;Dictates protein synthesis
Ribosomes Protein factories-make enzymes and protein
Endoplasmic Reticulum Rough-move proteins from ribosomes to Golgi apparatus Smooth-make fats,carbs,and proteins
Golgi Apparatus chemical processing and packing center of proteins
Mitochondria Production of energy for cells
Lysosomes Contain enzymes that can digest food compounds
Centrioles Cell division and reproduction
Microvilli increase the ability to absorb substances
Cilia moves substances along surface of the cell
Flagella "tail" that propel sperm through fluids
Nucleolus form ribosomes
Chromatin and Chromosomes DNA (Total of 46)
Homeostasis maintain a state of balance
Electrolytes substance that ionizes when dissolved in water
Cation positive charge (acid)
Anion negative charge (base)
pH measures how acidic or basic a substance is from 0-14
pH of 0 acidic (gastric juice)
pH of 14 basic (ammonia)
pH of 7 neutral (urine)
Cation(+) electrolytes of the body Sodium(Na+),Potassium(K+),Calcium(Ca+),Magnesium(+), and Hydrogen(H+)
Anions(-) electrolytes of the body Bicarbonate(HCO3-),Phosphate(HPO4-),Chloride(C-),Sulfate(SO4-)
4 tissue types Muscle,Epithelial,Nervous,Connective
Muscle Tissue Made of protein fibers,produce movement
Epithelial Tissue Covers the body,forms glands,and lines the surfaces of cavaties and organs
Nervous Tissue Specialized cells called neurons,transmits communications
Connective Tissue soft tissue(fat,blood cells)hard tissue(bones,ligaments, and cartilage)
Body systems Integumentary,Cardiovascular,Circulatory,Respiratory,Muscular,Skeletal,Digestive,Urinary,Endocrine,Nervous,Sensory,and Reproductive
What is a Body System a group of related organs that work together to accomplish functions necessary to maintain and support life
Cardiovascular Transports oxygen and nutrients to all body parts and removes waste products
Circulatory Blood and lymph that move throughout the body
Respiratory Exchange gases between the air and blood
Muscular Allows the body to move and controls movements within the body
Skeletal Provides body support and protection
Digestive Processes food and eliminate food waste
Urinary Filters the blood and removes liquid waste
Endocrine coordinates body activities through hormones
Nervous regulates the environment and sends messages to and from brain
Reproductive provides for human reproduction
Lymph fluid that circulate throughout the lymphatic system
Integumentary Covers the body and protects
Oxygen debt the debt of oxygen that is needed to convert the buildup of lactic acid back to glucose
Aerobic breakdown require oxygen
Anaerobic breakdown without oxygen
how is potassium ingested food
how is potassium excreted urine
what hormone influence potassium excretion aldesterone
what hormone influence potassium movement into cells insulin
foods high in potassium bananas,citrus fruits, tomatoes, and lentils
potassium supplement chloride tablet
what is potassium levels influenced by acid-base balance
acidosis potassium ions are outside the cells in extracellular fluid
alkalosis potassium is moved into the cells
effect of abnormal high and low potassium levels cardiac arrest
hypokalemia serum level of potassium is below 3.5 mEq per liter
causes of hypokalemia diarrhea,diuretics, excessive aldosterone or glucocorticoids,decreased dietary intake, and insulin
effects(signs)of hypokalemia cardiac dysrhythmias,muscles become less responsive,paresthesias,decreased digestive tract motility, respiratory muscles become weak,and renal function is impaired
hyperkalemia serum level of potassium is above 5 mEq per liter
causes of hyperkalemia renal failure, deficit of aldosterone,use of diuretic drugs,leakage cell potassium into extracellular fluids, and severe acidosis
effects(signs)of hyperkalemia dysrhythmias,muscle weakness, fatigue,nausea, and paresthesias
Symbol for Potassium (K+)
How does the 4 kinds of tissue differ from each other size,shape,amount, kind, and function
Epithelial Tissue packed close together with little or no inter cellular material between them and no blood vessels
what are the epithelial tissues simple squamous, stratisfied squamous, simple columnar, stratisfied transitional, pseudostratisfied, and simple cuboidal
simple squamous single layer of flattened cells
stratified squamous many layers of flattened cells (skin)
simple columnar single layer of tall, narrow cells (stomach)
stratified transitional many layers of varying shapes, capable of stretching (bladder)
pseudostratisfied single layer of tall cells that wedge together to appear as if there are two or more layers (trachea)
simple cuboidal single layer of cells that are cube shaped
What does simple layer mean single
what does stratified mean many
Connective tissue Holds organs together and give them shapes
what are the connective tissues areolar,adipose,fibrous,bone,cartilage,blood,and hematopoietic
Areolar loose arrangement of fibers and cells (connection)
Adipose large fat compartments (protection and insulation)
Dense fibrous dense arrangement of collagen fiber bundles(flexible but strong)
bone hard, calcified osteons (support;protection)
blood liquid matrix with flowing red and white cells (transportation)
hematopoietic liquid matrix with dense arrangment of blood cell producing cells (blood cell formation)
cartilage hard but flexible matrix with embedded chondrocytes (ear)
Muscle tissue muscles that attach to the bones
muscle tissues skeletal,cardiac, and smooth
skeletal voluntary willed or control of skeletal muscle contractions
Cardiac forms the walls of the heart,produce the heartbeat
Smooth spindles, involuntary muscle control
Nervous tissue nerve cells that function as communication between body structures and control body functions
nerve tissues neurons and glia
neurons conductors which is the functional unit
glia the supporting cells
parts of a nerve cell cell body,axon, and dendrite
axon carries nerve impulses
dendrite carry nerve impulses to body
Regeneration tissue repair
phagocytic cells remove dead or injured cells
size of a cell microscopic and vary
shapes of a cell flat,brick,threadlike,irregular
3 main parts of a cell plasma membrane,cytoplasm,nucleus
differentiated cells with different expression of genes
undifferentiated cells that have not undergone specialization (embryonic)
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid,identical genetic material for all human cells
mitosis cell cycle, cell duplicates into two genetically alike daughter cells
mitosis cell cycle prophase,metaphase,anaphase,telophase
prophase chromatin becomes chromosomes
metaphase chromosomes line up
anaphase chromosomes break and chromatids move to opposite sides (right-left)
telophase the nuclei of the daughter cells form around the two sets of chromosomes
5 hormones of the anterior pituitary gland TSH,ACTH,FSH,LH,GH
another name for anterior pituitary gland master gland
hormones function stimulate endocrine gland to grow and secrete hormones
Thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH) Thyroid gland
Adrenocarticotropic hormone (ACTH) adrenal cortex
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)& Leutinizing hormone (LH) ovaries and testes
Growth hormone (GH) Bones
location of pituitary gland skull;at the base of the brain connected by a stalk,blood vessels transport info from hypothalmus to master gland
2 parts of the pituitary gland anterior and posterior
2 hormones of the posterior pituitary gland Oxytocin,ADH
Oxytocin contraction of a pregnant uterus
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) reabsorption of water from renal tubles
proteins,glycoproteins,polypeptides,amino-acid,lipids Hormones
Tropic hormones increase other hormones growth and secretions
Sex hormones influence reproductive changers
Anabolic hormones stimulate tissue building
Pituitary gland somatropin hormone-promotes tissue growth
Pineal gland melatonin-sleep and wake cycle
thyroid gland thyroxine-metabolic rate
parathyroid gland parathyroid-calcium and phosphate in the blood/bones
Thymus gland thymosin-stimulates development of T cells
Adrenal gland epinephrine-autonomic nervous system response
Pancreatic islet gland insulin-regulates blood sugar
Ovaries Estrogen-regulates female sexual characteristics
Testes Testosterone-regulates male sexual characteristics
Bronchi,bronchioles, and alveoli respiratory system
called the "upside-down tree" of the respiratory system airtubes
"trunk of the tree" trachea
bronchioles small passageways
surfactant reduce surface tension in the alveoli
respiratory distress inability to inflate the alveoli of the lungs
respiratory distress syndrome a condition caused by absence or impairment of surfactant in the alveoli
photo dynamic therapy used for lung cancer that begin in the lining of the bronchial tubes
red light laser a beam used to destroy cancerous cells
infant respiratory distress syndrome lack of surfactant in the alveolar air sacs
adult respiratory distress syndrome impairment or removal of surfactant in the alveoli
upper respiratory tract provide entry for inhaled air, and exhaling
upper respiratory tract structures nose,para-nasal sinuses,pharynx,and larynx
mucosa serves as a trap for bacteria and foreign particles
middle respiratory tract long tube located in the mid-line of the thorax
middle respiratory tract structure trachea
lower respiratory tract lungs-respiration, transfer of oxygen, release carbon dioxide
lower respiratory tract structures left and right bronchi,bronchioles,lungs
what is the function of the respiratory system brings oxygen into the body through breathing process
Inspiration inhaling air, oxygen is brought into the lungs
Expiration exhaling air, carbon dioxide is removed from the lungs
3 things the respiratory system does exchanges gases between blood and the lungs, regulate body temp, maintain electrolyte balance
sinuses hallow spaces in the bones of the skull
nasal air passage nose-mouth-throat(pharnyx)-windpipe(trachea)
tracheotomy opening made in trachea as an alternative for exchange of gases
pleura membrane surrounds the lungs
diaphragm large flat muscle that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavity
dyspnea shortness of breath
causes of dyspnea large/small airway,intra-alveolar obstruction,alveolar septal lesions, destruction, increase in thickness,collapse,and central nervous cause (suffocation/drowning)
adult respiratory distress syndrome causes shock,pneumonia,toxic lung injury, and aspiration of fluids
clinical features of ARDS 24HRS severve distress,hypoxemia,hypercapnia,airless lungs
atelectasis collapse of part or all of a lung
deafness hearing loss
causes of deafness blockage,damage,abnormalities
conductive hearing loss external or middle ear damage/abnormalities
sensory hearing loss workplace noise, ototoxic drugs, unknown (elderly)
neural hearing loss lesions of cranial nerve or CNS
Parts of the ear external,middle,inner
external ear cartilage (pinna)
middle ear ear drum (tympanic membrane) and 3 bones malleus,incus, stapes
sound travel passage outer ear, ear canal,tympanic membrane, ossicles(3 bones)-conchlea-brain
sensory system eyes,ears,nose,tongue,skin
eyes vision(see)
ears audio(hear)
nose smell
tongue taste
skin touch
orbital cavity socket of the skull in which the eye is situated/protects
tissue that cushions the eye adipose
protects the eye from injury blinking
lubricates the eye conjuctiva mucous membrane
forms tears lacrimal apparatus
control eye movement extrincic muscles act on the OCULOMOTOR nerve
how much of the eye is exposed to the environment 1/5
white tissue of the eye sclera
focuses images cornea
supply eyes blood flow iris, chorid, ciliary muscles
what are the sections of the eyeball anterior(filled with watery fluid) and posterior (gelatin like substance)
opening of the eye pupil
iris adjust thr light entering eye
lens focuses light on the retina
the ear organ that detect sound
tympanic membrane ear drum
cerumen ear wax that protects middle ear from foreign particles
malleus transmmits sound vibrations from ear drum to incus
sends vibrations to the stapes incus
stapes transmit sound vibrations from incus to the oval window
eustachian tube the opening between middle ear and the pharnyx
function of the eustachian tube pressure equalizer and fluid/mucus drainage
hearing interpretation of sound waves
taste buds specialized cells located in papillae of the tongue
what type of cells are taste buds chemoreceptors
what taste does the tongue perceive sweet,sour,bitter,and salty
salivary gland helps dissolve food
hypoglossal nerve provides movement to the muscle of the tongue
olfactory system sense of smell
how many special cells are located in the skin 5! meissner-touch,pacinian-pressure,krause's end bulb-cold,ruffini nerves-warmth,free nerve-pain
consist of the brain and spinal cord CNS
consist of nerves PNS
master organ of the body brain
hypothalamus controls body temp,fatigue,hunger,thirst
pineal gland produces serotonin
pituitary gland produces hormones (anterior/posterior)
cerebellum directs motor,control,balance,and equilibrium
cerebrum assist with motor control and cognitive functions
medulla oblongata connects the spinal cord to the brain
olfactory nerve sensory component for sense of smell
optic nerve registers visual information
vagus nerve slows down heart rate
para sympathetic system system that helps the body relax
sympathetic system system that helps the body react quickly
adrenal gland produce various hormones that trigger chemical activity
facial nerve controls the muscles of facial expression
nervous system function sense,interpret,respond to internal and external environment changes to maintain homeostasis
meninges surround the tissue of the brain
c1-c8 cervical nerves
t1-t12 thoracic nerves
l1-l5 lumbar nerves
s1-s5 sacral nerve
afferent neurons carry messages from the body to the brain
efferent neurons carry messages from the brain to the body
connecting nerves carry messages from afferent nerves to efferent nerves
neuron nerve bundle of fibers that carry impulses
parts of a neuron dendrites,cell body,and axon
neuroglia cells that act as "glue" to support,bind,repair and protect neurons
astrocyte cells help transfer substances from the blood to the brain
microglia destroy/engulf bacteria and fight infection
synapse spaces between neurons
ganglia transmit impulses
thalmus produce sensations,emotions
integumentary dermis(skin)
flexion the position that a limb assumes when it is bent
extension extends or can extend
abductor muscles that move limbs away from the mid line of the body
adductor muscle that moves limb towards the mid line of the body
rotator muscle that turns limb
trapezius chest muscle
deltoid shoulder muscle
triceps arm muscle
biceps thigh muscle
qudriceps lower leg muscle
frontal muscle raises eyebrow
orbicularis oculi closes eye
orbicularis oris draws lips together
zygomaticus elevates corner of mouth and lips
masseter closes jaw
temperal assist in chewing
sternocleidomastoid rotates and flexes the head and neck
trapezius extends head and neck
how many chromosomes does cell contain 46
gamates sex cell that produce male spermatozoa/female ova
how many chromosomes are left after meiosis 23-male 23-female
muscle groups head and neck,upper extremities,trunk,lower extremities,adductor,hamstring,quadriceps,peroneus
genetic variation each offspring from a single set of parents is very likely to be genetically unique
crossing-over genes from a particular location cross over to the same location on the matching gene
autosome chromosomes who appear in pairs whose (members) have the same form but differ from other pairs
allosome pairs differ from autosome chromosomes and determine sex
sex chromosome a chromosome in sex determination
genetic variation caused by random mating and large populations
meiosis cell division necessary for sexual reproduction
mitosis cell duplicates into two genetically alike daughter cells
reproduction biological process by which new "offspring" individual organisms are produced from their "parents"
female reproductive cancers breast cancer,endometrial cancer
female reproductive disorders ectopic pregnancy,endometriosis,menustrual problems,Premenstrual syndrome,fibroids,vaginitis,yeast infection
pregnancy disorders erythioblastosis fetalis(Rh),fetal alcohol syndrome
female sexual transmitted diseases chancroid,chlamydia,leukorrhea,pubic lice,genital warts,gonorrhea,herpes,human papilloman virus,pelvic inflammatory disease,syphilis,trichomonas,
male reproductive cancers prostate cancer,testes cancer
male reproductive disorders benign prostatic hypertrophy,cryptochidism,klinefelters syndrome,orchitis,
male sexual transmitted disease orchitis,phimosis
external covering of the body skin
function of the skin protects against external injury
greek term for skin derma
dermatology the specialty/study of skin
dermatopathology study of skin diseases
layers of the skin epidermis,dermis,adipose
epidermis outer layer of skin
dermis inner layer consist of blood vessels,nerves,hair follicles
adipose fat tissue
proliferating skin regeneration
keratin gives skin strength and elasticity
melanocytes pigment(melanin)producing cells
sebaceous glands secrete oil for the hair and skin
sebum oil secreted by sebaceous glands
skin accessory structures hair,nails,specialized glands,and nerves
largest organ in the body skin
skin glands sebaceous,sudoriferous, and ceruminous
nails protect fingers and toes from injury
carbohydrates preferred energy food of the body
glucose carb used by the body to supply energy
glucose breakdown cycle glycolysis,citric acid cycle,electron transfer
glycolysis the process of changing glucose into pyruvic acid
how is ATP changed to ADP glucose-mitochondria-ATP-ADP-returns to mitochondria for more energy
how many essential amino acids are there 8
metabolism physical and chemical processes that produce energy
Anabolism building tissues from small compounds materials
catabolism breakdown of tissues into materials that may be reused or excreted
nutrition the study of food thats eaten and how it is used by the body
nutrients chemical materials in food
5 nutrients essential to good health carbs,vitamins,proteins,fats,minerals,water
carbohydrates found in plants,sugar,starch
proteins animal,eggs,milk
fats meat,oil
vitamins organic compounds
minerals simple compounds
food groups pyramid of six food groups to help plan meals,in a daily diet
calories amount of energy needed to raise the body's heat
diet therapy special diets used to treat specific health conditions
q-angle 10-15 degree angle between the quadriceps tendon and the patella tendon
quadriceps four headed muscle of the femur
divides the left and right sides of heart partion
hollow organ the heart
how many chambers does the heart have 4
chambers of the heart 2 atria/2 ventricles
which is smaller the atria/ventricle atria
recieving chamber atria
discharging chamber ventricle
heart cardiac muscle myocardium
heart smooth tissue endocardium
endocarditis inflammation of the endocardium lining
thrombus clot/clotting
heart covering/lining pericardium
2 layers of pericardium visceral and parietal
pericardial edema when visceral and parietal pericardium rub together causing severe chest pain
pericardial effusion fluid,pus,or blood accumulate between 2 pericardium layers and impair pumping of the heart
cardiac tamponade pressure on the heart from effusion
pericarditis swelling and irritation of the pericardium
coverings of the heart the heart-myocardium-epicardium-pericardium(visceral/parietal)
systole contraction of the heart (heart beat)
diastole relaxation of the heart
right heart blood flow Body-Superior/Inferior vena cava-Right atrium-Tricuspid valve-Right ventricle-Pulmonaric valve-Pulmonary artery-Lungs to pick up oxygen
left heart blood flow Lungs-Pulmonary veins- left atrium -mitral valve- left ventricle- aortic valve- aorta- body
pericardial sac holds the heart
pericardial fluid keep the surface moist and prevent friction
atrioventricular valves regulate the proper inflow and outflow of blood from each chamber during heart contractions
heart beats per minute 60-80
murmur sound of the heart flow of blood through the chambers
cardiovascular system transport nutrients and oxygen to the body
cardiovascular structures heart and blood vessels
heart location thoracic cavity between the lungs,left of the sternum,
pulmonary circulation right side heart flow to lungs
systemic circulation left side heart flow to rest of body
hepatic circulation blood flow from intestines,gallbladder,pancreas,stomach, and spleen
arteries carry blood away from the heart
veins carry blood back to the heart
capillaries microscopic vessels that carry blood between arterial and venous vessels
aorta the largest artery in the body
arterioles smaller artery branches
venules smaller veins
deoxygenated blood flow right chambers of the heart and body
oxygented blood flow left chambers of the heart and lungs
Created by: jazzcl07



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