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Muscle and Tissue


epimysium surrounds entire muscle
perimysium surrounds fascicles d(groups of muscle fibers)
endomysium surround each individual muscle fiber
myofibrils 80% cell volume. striations of dark A bands and light I bands
M line holds thick filaments together
Thick filaments A band
Thin Filament G Actin has active sites for myosin head
regulatory proteins bound to actin tropomyosin, troponin
terminal cisternae form perpendicular cross channels
sarcoplasmic reticulum functions in regulating intracellular CA+ levels
Triads T tubule and terminal cisternae
Available sources of ATP are depleted in 4-6 seconds
anaerobic pathway (gylcolysis) glucose---pyruvic acid+ atp
aerobic pathway (cellular respiration) pyruvic acid---CO2+H20 +ATP + Heat. produces 95% of atp during rest
slow oxidative dark red. fatigue resistant. postural muscles
fast oxidative red-pink. moderate fatigue resistance. leg muscles
fast glycolitic white, explosive. shoulder muscles
facial nerve VII
orbicularis oris purses lips
muscles of anterior neck and throat suprahyoid infrahyoid *synergists to head flexion
suprahyoid digastric stylohyoid mylohyoid geniohyoid
infrahyoid sternohyoid sternothyroid omohyoid thyrohyoid
scalene muscles lateral head movements. elevate ribs 1 and 2 during inspiration
semispinalis capitis synergist with sternocleidomastoid
splenius capitis look up to same side
prime movers of back extension and lateral bending erector spinae
external intercostals inspiration
internal intercostals expiration
diaphragm prime mover in respiration
transversus abdominis compresses abdomen
rectus abdominis 6 pack. Flexes vertebral column
pelvic diaphragm levator ani coccygeus
pectoralis minor pulls scapula forward and downward
serratus anterior boxer muscle. Pulls scapula forward and downward
prime mover of shoulder flexion pectoralis major
trapezius shrugs , elevates, depresses scapula
antagonist of rectus abdominis erector spinae
prime mover of shoulder abduction deltoids
prime mover of shoulder adduction latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major
which muscle crosses your leg sartorius
supinates forearm and hand supinator
pronator teres pronator quadratus pronates forearm and hand
brachialis connects ulna to humerus
tricep surae plantar flexion (gastrocnemius,soleus)
retracts the shoulder blades trapezius, rhomboid major and minor
rotator cuff supraspinatus infraspinatus teres minor subscapularis
internal rotator of shoulder subscapularis
externally rotates shoulder infraspinatus, teres minor
two muscles that insert on the calcaneus through the achilles tendon gastrocnemius, soleus
Created by: dacosta6



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