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Nervous system and N

What are the functions of the CNS 1) Sensory input 2) integration 3) motor output
Central Nervous System includes 1) brain and spinal cord 2) integration and command center
Peripheral Nervous system PNS 1)spinal and cranial nerves 2)carries messages to and from CNS
Sensory Afferent Division of PNS 1)somatic afferent fibers 2)visceral afferent fibers
Somatic afferent fibers 1) convey impulses from skin , skeletal muscles and joins
Motor/ efferent division of PNS carries impulses from CNS to effector organs
MOTOR division of PNS *somatic/voluntary *autonomic /involuntary
Autonomic/Involuntary Nervous system 1) sympathetic 2) parasympathetic
sympathetic fight or flight
parasympathetic rest and digest
Neurons (nerve cells) *excitable *transmit electrical signals *have a membrane potential * life long *amitotic
neuroglia ( glial cells) support cells
CNS Neuroglia 1)Astrocytes 2)oligodendrytes 3)ependymal 4)microglia
Astrocytes * most abundant * cling to capillaries, neurons, synaptic ends *determine capillary permeability *Make up blood, brain barrier
microglia *immunity and defense towards injured neurons
Ependymal cells * ciliated *line central cavities of brain and spinal cord *separate IF from Cerebrospinal fluid
oligodendrocytes *branched * Myelin sheaths in CNS
Satellite cells ( PNS) * surround cell bodies of PNS
Shwann Cells (Neurolemmocytes) Myelin sheaths in PNS. Outer layer forms the neurilemma
Dendrites *receive input *branched ( like a tree) * convey electrical signals towards cell body
Nissl Bodies Rough ER
Cell body name Soma,Perikaryon
Axon Conducting region of a neuron Generates and transmits AP away from the cell body
Terminal Branches (telodendria) help transmit signal to many places
Nodes of Ranvier gaps between Schwann cells
Myelin Sheaths Protect and electrically insulate the axon Increase speed of nerve impulse transmission
MS is caused by myelin breakdown
Saltatory conduction signal leaps from one node to the next ( fast)
Clusters of cell bodies in CNS Nuclei
Clusters of cell bodies in PNS Ganglia
Bundles of processes (axons) in CNS Tract
Bundles of processes (axons) in PNS Nerve
Axon hillock cone shaped area from which axon arises
Functional classification of neurons 1)sensory/ afferent 2) interneurons ( association neurons) 3)efferent/motor
multipolar neurons one axon. Many dendrites. Most abundant
Bipolar one axon, one dendrite. Rare . Retina of eye
unipolar (pseudounipolar) single, short process with two branches
Resting membrane potential voltage -70mV
Resting state ( polarized) only leakage channels open. K+ in, Na+ out
Depolarization NA+ channels open. * Na+ comes in *inside becomes + * this increases probability of an AP
Repolarization *Na+ channels close *K+ channels open *K+ leaves cell *internal negativity is restored
Ionic Conditions are restored with the.. NA+, K+ pump
Hyperpolarization inside of membrane becomes more negative. * reduces probability of an AP
Ions move along electrochemical gradients
electrical gradients move towards opposite charge
there are more leakage channels for K+ so it leaves more during rest
mechanically gated channels change in shape
the synaptic cleft prevents an impulse from being directly transmitted from one neuron to another.
pre synaptic neuron transmits signal towards synapse ( synaptic cleft)
post synaptic neuron transmits signal away from synapse
temporal summation one impulse after another ( rapid fire order)
spacial summation neuron is stimulates by a large number of terminals at the same time
Excitatory post synaptic potential helps cause an action potential
Inhibitory post synaptic potential inhibits AP
Absolute refractory period happens during depolarization
relative refractory period happens during repolarization
Knob like axon terminals are also called synaptic knobs,boutons
anterograde towards axon terminal
retrograde towards the cell body
white matter *myelinated. *Fast
resting membrane potential is defined as potential difference across the membrane of a resting cell
a reduction in membrane potential towards 0 is defined as depolarization
repolarization restores resting electrical conditions
termination of neurotransmitter effect 1) degradation of enzymes 2)reuptake by astrocytes 3)diffusion away from synaptic cleft
acetylcholine most common neurotransmitter
Neurilemma peripheral bulge of Schwann cell cytoplasm
thin fibers are unmyelinated
Functional division of PNS sensory(afferent) division motor(efferent) division
What are the 2 divisions of the Autonomic NS sympathetic parasympathetic
Ion flow creates an electrical current
In graded potentials Magnitude varies directly with stimulus strength
Ensures that each AP is an all-or-none event absolute refractory period
Group A fibers Large diameter, myelinated
Group C fibers small, unmyelinated
play roles in emotional behaviors and biologial clock dopamine,norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin, histamine.
Created by: dacosta6



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