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Ch 22

Th Respiratory System

Mucous membranes of the nasal passages, nasopharynx and trachea are lined with what type of epithelium pseudostratified cilated columnar
The right lung has 2 fissures 3 lobes
Internal respiration occurs between systemic capillaries and tissue cells
The vocal folds are found in the larynx
During internal and external respiration, gases move by diffusion
The smallest and last tube the air flows through before it reaches the alveoli is the alveolar duct
Which of the following is a passageway for air, food and water pharynx
This structure prevents food or water from entering the trachea epiglottis
This is located anterior to the esophagus and carries air to the bronchi trachea
The point where the trachea divides into right and left primary bronchi is a ridge called carina
Which is the dominant method of carbon dioxide transport in plasma as bicarbonate ions
Carbon dioxide binds to the glob in portion of hemoglobin to form carbaminohemoglobin
The enzyme carbonic anhydrase helps carbon dioxide to react with water
If the air we breathe contains 10 percent of Gas X, the partial pressure of Gas X is 76 mmHg
As blood enters the systemic capillaries PO2 is high in the blood and low in the tissues
When oxygen combines with the heme of hemoglobin, what is formed oxyhemoglobin
Tidal volume is the volume of air in one breath during normal relaxed breathing
Some hydrogen ions in the blood are produces by the dissociation of carbonic acid
The amount of oxygen that can combine with heme is determines mainly by the partial pressure of oxygen
In order for inspiration to occur alveolar pressure must decrease
The amount of oxygen released by the hemoglobin molecules in the blood to the tissues increases as blood pH decreases (i.e. the acidity increases)
In the lungs PCO2 is low in the alveoli and high in the capillaries
Surface tension of the alveolar fluid is reduced by the presence of surfactant
Eupnea refers to a normal pattern of quiet breathing
The phrenic nerves innervate the diaphragm
Lung compliance is affected mainly by the amount of elastic tissue in the lungs and the amount of surfactant
The rhythm of normal breathing is controlled by neurons located in the medulla oblongata
When the diaphragm lowers during breathing volume in the thoracic cavity increases
A disorder characterized by destruction of the walls of the alveoli is emphysema
An increase in pulmonary capillary permeability or an increase in pulmonary capillary pressure leads to pulmonary edema
The most sensitive region of the respiratory tract for triggering the cough reflex is the carina
The function of alveolar macrophages "dust cells" is to remove debris from alveolar spaces
During normal quiet breathing, the diaphragm descends and the alveolar pressure decreases about 2 mmHg
When we inhale both alveolar pressure and intrapleural pressure decrease
A modified respiratory pattern involves a series of convulsive inspirations followed by a single prolonged expiration. This pattern is characteristic of sobbing
This is a disorder characterized by chronic airway inflammation, airway hypersensitivity to a variety of stimuli, and airway obstruction asthma
At a partial pressure of 105 mmHg in the alveoli, the percent saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen in the pulmonary capillaries will be almost 100%
The most common infectious cause of death in the US is pneumonia
This area transmits inhibitory impulses to turn off the inspiratory area before the lungs become too full of air pneumotaxic area
This area sends stimulatory impulses to the inspiratory area that activate it and prolong inhalation apneustic area
This area controls the basic rhythm of respiration medullary rhythmicity
Which of the following is not part of the upper respiratory system trachea
Pitch is controlled by amount of tensiono of the vocal cords
This is the primary gas exchange site alveolus
Which of the below tissues maintains open airways in the lower respiratory system hyaline cartilage C-shaped rings
Which of the below tissues provides the functions of the inner layer of the conducting organs below the larynx ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with globlet cells
Which of the below tissues forms the exchange surfaces of the alveolus simple squamous epithelium
There are cells of the alveoli that produce surfactant type II alveolar cells
Which of the following is not a factor that the rate of pulmonary and systemic gas exchange depends on force of contraction of diaphragm
This is direction of diffusion of gases at capillaries near systemic cells oxygen out of the blood, carbon dioxide into blood
This is direction of diffusion of gases at the alveoli of the lungs oxygen into blood, carbon dioxide out of the blood
These terms mean the lungs and the chest wall expands easily high compliance
In ventilation-perfusion coupling, a high CO2 level causes the smooth muscles in the bronchioles that service the area to constrict False
In ventilation-perfusion coupling, a low CO2 level causes the terminal arterioles that service the area to constrict True
Oxygen binds to hemoglobin much more tightly than carbon monoxide False
BPG, an intermediate in anaerobic respiration, when bound reversibly with hemoglobin lowers hemoglobin's affinity to oxygen True
A decreased temperature causes hemoglobin to unload oxygen more easily False
Cutting the phrenic nerve will cause paralysis of the diaphragm True
When the inspiratory muscles of the chest wall contract, the size of the thoracic cavity decreases False
The bulk of the carbon dioxide carried in the blood plasma is in the form of HCO3 True
Infant respiratory distress syndrome occurs when infants are not able to easily keep their alveoli open between breathes due to insufficient amounts of surfactant True
Serous membrane bound to the surface of the lungs Visceral pleura
Serous membrane that forms the outer wall of the pleural cavity parietal pleura
Ridge covered by a sensitive mucous membrane; irritation triggers the cough reflex Carina
Prevents food or fluid from entering the airways Epiglottis
Secrete alveolar fluid and surfactant Type II alveolar cells
Functions as a passageway for air and food and houses the tonsils Pharynx
Tubular passageways for air connecting the larynx to the bronchi Trachea
Main air passageway entering the lungs Bronchi
Forms the anterior wall of the larynx Thyroid cartilage
Connects the laryngopharynx with the trachea and houses the vocal cords Larynx
Site of external respiration Nose
Functions in warming, moistening, and filtering air; receives olfactory stimuli Alveoli
Simple squamous epithelial cells that through which gas exchange occurs Type I alveolar cells
Rapid and deep breathing Hyperventilation
Absence of breathing Apnea
Shallow, chest breathing Costal breathing
Normal, quiet breathing Eupnea
Deep, abdominal breathing Diaphragmatic breathing
A deficiency of oxygen at the tissue level Hypoxia
Above normal value for the partial pressure of carbon dioxide Hypercapnia
The ease with which the lungs and thoracic wall can be expanded Compliance
Hypoxia-induced vasoconstriction to divert blood to well-ventilated regions of the lungs Ventilation-perfusion coupling
When blood pH drops then the amount of oxyhemoglobin (decreases/increases) and oxygen delivery to the tissue cells (increases/decreases) decreases, increases
The abrupt increase in ventilation at the start of exercise is due to (neural/chemical) changes that send excitatory impulses to the inspiratory area in the medulla oblongata neural
List eight modifies respiratory movements that are used to express emotions and to clear the airways sighing, coughing, sneezing, hiccupping, laughing, crying, sobbing, yawning
TV+IRV+ERV Vital Capacity
Amount of air exhaled in forced exhalation Expiratory reserve volume
Total volume of air inhaled and exhaled each minute Minute volume
Provides a medical and legal tool for determining a still birth from a live birth Minimal volume
Volume of air in one breath Tidal volume
Vital capacity+ residual volume Total lung capacity
Tidal volume+ inspiratory reserve volume Inspiratory capacity
Amount of air remaining in the lungs after expiratory reserve volume is expelled Residual volume
Residual volume+ expiratory reserve volume Functional redisual volume
Additional amount of air inhaled beyond the tidal volume with a very deep breath Inspiratory reserve volume
Beginning with carbon dioxide, give the chemical formula sequence below that produces the bicarbonate anion CO2 + H2O <---> H2CO3 <---> HCO3- + H+
This reaction occurs fastest in (plasma/RBCs) due to the presence of carbonic acid anhydrase RBCs
After bicarbonate is formed, it it transported to the plasma in exchange of a (oxygen/chloride) ion choride
Created by: lawalk
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