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Benchmark review

8th grade STAAR

What are the subatomic particles? protons, neutrons, electrons
What charge do protons have? positive
What charge do electrons have? negative
What charge do neutrons have? neutral
Where are protons located? in the nucleus
Where are electrons located? in the electron cloud
Where are neutrons located? in the nucleus
What 2 particles make up the mass of an atom? protons and neutrons
How do you calculate the number of neutrons in an atom? Mass number - Atomic Number = Neutrons MAN
What does APE mean? Atomic number = # Protons = # electrons
What is the smallest part of an elements that still have properties of that element? an atom
What determines an element's identity? The number of protons in the nucleus
How do valence electrons determine an element's physical and chemical properties? Elements want to have 8 electrons in their outer shell. Atoms gain or lose electrons to have a full outer shell. Atoms that only need to lose or gain one electron are more reactive than elements that have full shells or need to lose or gain several.
How are metals, nonmetals and metalloids arranged on the periodic table? Metalloids are on the stairstep line starting with boron. Metals are to the left of the stairstep line and nonmetals are to the right. Hydrogen is an exception. It is the only nonmetal on the left side of the table.
What are some characteristics of metals? conduct heat and electricity, left side of the periodic table, malleable, ductile, shiny, high melting point, lose electrons easily
What are some characteristics of nonmetals? insulate against heat and electricity, right side of the periodic table, brittle, dull, low melting point, gain electrons easily
What are some characteristics of metalloids? Metalloids have characteristics of metals and nonmetals. For example, clay (made of silicon) is malleable like metals, but is an insulator, like nonmetals.
What does the atomic number represent? The atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
What do the groups and periods represent on the periodic table? The groups are the vertical columns. Elements in the same groups have similar chemical and physical properties because they have the same number of valance electrons.
What are products in a chemical reaction? They are found on the right side of the equation and are the new substance that was created
What are the reactants in a chemical reaction? They are found on the left side of the equation. They are what you are reacting to make the new product.
What is the subscript in a chemical formula? It is the small number written after an element symbol. It tells you how many atoms of that element are in one molcule of the compound.
What is the coefficient in a chemical formula? It is the number written in front of the formula. It tells you how many molecules of the compound you have.
What is a chemical formula? shows the atoms and their respective quantity in a compound or molecule.
What are the some signs that indicate a chemical reaction has taken place? Change in color, change in odor, formation of a gas, bubbling, change in temperature
How many electrons does an atom want to have in its outer shell (with the exception of Hydrogen and Helium) 8 (Hydrogen and Helium are full with 2)
How do balanced and unbalanced forces affect an object's motion? Balanced - no change in motion, constant speed Unbalanced - object accelerates (changes its motion)
What effect does friction have on an object's motion? Friction will oppose the motion of the object, slowing it down and generate heat
How can you differentiate between speed, velocity, and acceleration on a graph? Look at the how the x and y axis are labeled. Speed is distance and time, velocity is speed that includes direction and acceleration is speed and time.
How can you differentiate between speed, velocity, and acceleration on a graph? Look at the how the x and y axis are labeled. Speed is distance and time, velocity is speed that includes direction and acceleration is speed and time.
What is the difference between speed, velocity, and acceleration? Speed is distance/time. Velocity is distance/ time in a direction. Acceleration is a change in motion (speed/time)
What 2 forces keep planets in orbit around the sun? gravity and inertia
What is Newton's 1st Law? An object at rest remains at rest and an object in motion remains in motion unless acted upon by an outside force.
What is Newton's 2nd Law? F=ma
What is Newton's 3rd Law? For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
What is Earth's axis? The Earth's axis is an imaginary line that goes through the center of the Earth from the north pole to the south pole. The Earth is tilted on its axis about 23.5 degrees from perpendicular.
What is the difference between Earth's rotation and revolution and how are they related to day, night and seasons? The Earth's rotation describes it's spinning on the axis. The Earth's revolution describes it's orbit travel around the sun. Earth's rotation causes day and night, the revolution and tilt cause Earth's seasons.
What is the role of the Sun in the lunar cycle (moon phases)? The sun provides the light that the moon is reflecting back to Earth. It is the position the sun, moon and Earth have according to each other that cause the moon phases.
23. What are the eight main moon phases of the lunar cycle? New Moon Waxing Crescent 1st Quarter Waxing Gibbous Full Moon Waning Gibbous 3rd Quarter Waning Crescent New Moon
What effect does the gravitational pull of the Moon and the Sun have on Earth? The sun and moon both pull on the water on Earth. The moon is closer, so it has a greater effect on the tides than the sun does.
What season does the northern hemisphere have when the South Pole is facing away from the sun? Summer
Which pole is facing the sun when it is spring in the Northern Hemisphere. Neither. During the spring and fall equinoxes, neither pole is facing the sun.
During what moon phases does the greatest difference between high and low tide occur? The greatest difference in tides occurs during the new and full moons where both the sun and moon are pulling in a straight line on the water. These are called spring tides.
During what moon phases does the least difference between high and low tide occur? The least difference in tides occurs during the quarter moons when the sun and moon are pulling perpindicular on the water. These are called neap tides.
What are black holes? A black hole is a place in space where gravity pulls so much that not even light can get out.
What do high mass stars turn into? A supernova, then a black hole.
How does our sun compare with other stars? Our sun is average in size, mass and color.
What is the Herztsprungā€Russell Diagram, and how is it used to classify stars? The Herztsprung-Russell (H-R) Diagram is a chart used to classify stars by brightness, magnitude, color and size.
How do we measure distance in space? We measure distance in space using light years. A light year is the distance it takes light to travel in one year. About 6 trillion miles
How does the distance of the Sun from Earth compare to the distances of other stars from Earth? The sun is the closest star to Earth. The next closest star (Proxima Centauri) is over 4 light years away.
If a star 15 light years away imploded into a supernova today, when would we be able to tell on Earth? 15 years
What is the electromagnetic spectrum (EMS)? The electromagnetic spectrum is a how all electromagnetic waves are arranged according to frequency and wavelength.
How do astronomers know that galaxies are moving away from Earth? There is a red shift in the electromagnetic spectrum
What is the Big Bang Model of the origin of the universe? The Big Bang Model of the origin of the universe is a theory that the Universe started as a dense ball that expanded very quickly
What are some pieces of evidence to support the continental drift theory? fossils of tropical plants and animals are found on several continents as well as in the Arctic where they couldn't live. There are also fossil remains and rock deposits on different continents that would line up if they were still together
What is the continental drift theory? The continental drift theory is a theory that all continents originated from a supercontinent called Pangaea.
What forms at a Continental - continental convergent boundary? folded mountains
What forms at a oceanic - oceanic convergent boundary? a trench (subduction zone) and an island arc (volcanic islands)
What forms at a continental - oceanic convergent boundary? a trench (subduction zone) and volcanic mountains
What forms at a transform boundary? a fault line
What forms at a continental - continental divergent boundary? rift valley
What forms at a oceanic - oceanic divergent boundary? mid ocean ridge
How could you tell where plates are by using satellite images? You can tell by the features that form there
Why doesn't Earth's daily temperature vary as much as other planets? Earth has water in the ocean and atmosphere that helps stabilize temperatures.
What are conduction, convection and radiation? Ways to transfer heat
What is conduction? Heat transfer by molecules bumping into each other?
What is convection? Heat transfer by flow of a material
What is radiation? Heat transfer by waves
What land features are most susceptible to erosion and weathering? Areas near water or glaciers are most susceptible to erosion.
What is te difference between weathering and erosion? Weathering is the breaking apart of material, erosion is the movement of the weathered material.
What are weather maps used for? Weather maps are used to forecast weather for the near future in a particular area.
What type of weather and pressure is associated with cold fronts? high pressure, stable, clear weather
What type of weather and pressure is associated with warm fronts? low pressure, unstable weather
What is the major source of energy on Earth? the sun!!!
How is wind formed? Wind is formed when air is moving from high pressure to low pressure due to the unequal heating of the Earth.
How are ocean currents formed? Surface currents caused by wind. Deeper currents caused by temperature differences and salinity changes. Water cools and becomes more saline (salty) at the poles and sinks. It rises as an upwelling closer to the equator where it warms up again.
How do meteorologists track, measure, and predict atmospheric conditions? Meteorologists use weather instruments and weather maps to forecast weather.
What instrument do you measure air pressure with? a barometer
What instrument do you measure wind speed with? an anemometer
What instrument do you measure relative humidity with? a psychrometer
What instrument do you measure temperature with? a thermomenter
Where do weather fronts occur? Weather fronts occur when air masses with different temperatures and humidity meet.
What is the role of ocean currents in regulating weather patterns around the globe? Ocean currents help regulate weather patterns by moving warm water away from the equator and cold water away from the poles.
What causes sea breezes? Sea breezes are caused during the day when warm air from the land rises and the cooler air from the sea rushes in to take it's place.
What causes land breezes? At night, the land cools and the warmer air is above the ocean. The cooler air above land will rush in to take its place.
What causes a hurricane to form? Low pressure above warm water causes thunderstorms which begin to rotate due to Coriolis effect. Warm ocean water increases energy and the pressure drops, making the storms larger, growing into a tropical depression, tropical storm, then hurricane.
Where is the most energy available in a food chain? The most energy is available at the bottom. The producers at the bottom of the food chain get their energy directly from the sun.
Where is the least energy available in a food chain? The tertiary consumer at the top has the least energy available to them.
How do organisms depend on abiotic factors to survive? Abiotic factors include temperature, sunlight, wind and water. Aquatic species need water at a specific temperature. Some species need more sunlight than others.
How do organisms depend on biotic factors to survive? Biotic factors are living factors, such an animal's prey or habitat
What happens when two species in the same environment occupy the same niche? they compete for resources
How are habitat resources affected by competition? When species compete for resources, the resources can be used up or destroyed.
How are organisms and populations affected by environmental changes? Environmental changes can force a species to adapt or risk becoming extinct. If a species becomes extinct, it will affect the food web.
What ocean systems do humans depend on and how do they rely on these systems? Oceans help moderate our climate, help filter pollution, supply food for humans and other animals and have a large amount of biodiversity
How have human activities modified the ocean systems on which they depend? Overfishing decreases fish populations Pollution can cause algae to grow and deprive other underwater life of oxygen Coastal development destroys some species habitats Invasive species can crowd out native species and use up their resources
What are the consequences of human impact on ocean systems? Human impact can lead to pollution, which can affect the food web. If plankton were not able to survive in the ocean, the rest of the food web would need to adapt.
What are some things that a population can do in order to adapt to long term changes to the environment? Species can begin to change to patterns in order to blend into an environment better, have longer necks, venom
Created by: jistre



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