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Clinical Laboratory Procedures

Define the "field of microbiology" study of all microorganisms, living structures that can be seen only with powerful magnification
Define POL. Physician's Office Laboratory
Define CLIA. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act 1988
Name the 7 different kinds of cultures. throat, sputum, urine, blood, wound, genital, nose, stool
what is the least amount of time a culture would need to grow before being examined for identification? 12 hours
what two things must be achieved in order for the culture to grow? optimum environment and temperature
what is the name of the natural bacteria found in the body? normal flora
what is the purpose of normal flora it helps with the body's immune system
can some specimens be refrigerated without harming it? yes
name the media that will keep a specimen on a swab moist until it is cultured. holding media
what department of a hospital works closely with the microbiology department to determine if certain organisms are causing infections? infection control department
what is the name of the nuclear material that all living cells contain? DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
once bacteria encapsulate themselves with a protective protein coating, they become known as what? spores
how long can spores live? 150,000 YEARS
what would be an example of a spore? tetanus
what is the amount of time an autoclave is set to sufficiently kill infectious agents, spores, viruses, and contaminants? 15-20 min
define aerosols. airborne particles that can be released into the air when culturing
what piece of protective equipment is used to protect the medical assistant and other laboratory personnel when working with aerosols? safety hood
define aerobic. grows well in oxygen
define anaerobic does not grow well or at all in oxygen
define inoculating loop piece of wire with rounded edge used to transfer organisms on a culture medium in a plate or broth.
what is the quickest method of sterilizing the inoculating loop and needle? incinerator
name the four most important steps in specimen handling. 1) standard precautions are strictly followed2) specimens are properly collected3) specimens are in the proper container4) specimens reach lab in a minimal amount of time
how often are quality control checks done when testing specimens? every test or according to manufacturers instructions
how often should temperature controls be monitored on equipment in the lab? daily
define MSDS material safety data sheets
when should "standard precautions" be practiced? All the time and especially while obtaining and processing specimens
what type of specimen is obtained from doing a lumbar puncture (LP) procedure? CSF= cerebrospinal fluid
what does a culture medium contain? nutrients compared to human tissue to encourage growth of microorganisms.
name the three shapes of bacteria. cocci-round bacilli-rod shaped spirilla-spiral shaped
what is a wet-mount preparation? a specimen suspended in liquid for viewing under the microscope.
what is wet-mount prep used for? to diagnose the cause of fungal and bacterial infections.
what preparation is used to study fungi and spores? KOH= potassium hydroxide preparation
what has the appearance of gelatin? agar
what is the name of the container used to grow bacteria? petri dish
media in a liquid form is stored in what kind of tube? broth tube
a primary culture is read after being incubated for ____ to ____ hours. 24 to 48 hours
Group A streptococcus is also known as _________. Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus Group A
Group A streptococcus bacteria have what shape? round
If group A streptococcus goes untreated what can it cause? kidney or heart valve damage
what is the benefit of performing a rapid strep test versus a throat culture? results within minutes
what is the difference between a rapid strep test and a throat culture? rapid strep test is only a screening tool. throat culture is when the bacteria is actually grown, identified, and tested for sensitivity.
what does it mean if a bacteria is reported as "sensitive to"? the antibiotic being tested is effective against it
what does it mean if a bacteria is reported as "resistant to"? the antibiotic being tested is not effective against it
why are we seeing more parasitic infections? public awareness and the age of travel
where are parasites found? blood, urine, and feces
What is the name of the study of parasites? parasitology
what type of container should be used to collect a specimen for ova and parasites? What kind of specimen would we need to collect wide mouth containers with a tight lid for a fecal specimen
what is enterobius vermicularis? round worm
what are some of the symptoms of enterobius vermicularis? severe itching, irritability, insomnia at night
what type of test would be performed to diagnose enterobius vermicularis? cellophane tape swab on the anus at night when the round worm is active near the anus
what is mycology? study of fungus
what is the most common type of infection in the field of mycology? yeast infections
microbiology does not include the study of _________ and ____________. plants and animals
study of algae phycology
study of viruses virology
study of protozoa protozoology
study of bacteria bacteriology
study of fungus mycology
study of animals zoology
study of plants botany
study of microorganisms microbiology
study of resistance immunology
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