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Ch 21

The Immune System

This type of immunity defends against any type of invader nonspecific, innate, or general
Which of the following is not considered an organ involved in the immune system? pancreas
The lack of resistance is also known as susceptibility
Which of the below produces hormones that promote maturation of T cells? thymus
Which of these does NOT involve a physical or chemical barrier or mechanism in innate immunity? macrophages
These anti-viral substances will diffuse to uninfected cells and reduce production of viral proteins needed for viral replication interferons
Immunocompetent and active cytotoxic T-cells can recognize cells infected with viruses, transplanted cells from another person, some types of cancers (selections a, b, c)
These small hormone-like chemicals released by cells that can stimulate, alter, or inhibit the functions of other cells in coordinating the immune response cytokines
All of these are non-specific defense mechanisms except neutralization of an antigen by an antibody
Cytokines such as interleukin-1 and interleukin-2 are necessary to initiate T-cell proliferation
This type of lymphocyte destroys cancerous cells in a non-specific fashion natural killer cells
Which of the following represents a specific body defense mechanism immunity
Interferon is produced by cells in response to the presence of viruses
The two major types of active phagocytic cells are macrophages and neutrophils
After recovering from certain diseases, one may have developed this type of immunity to the diseases naturally acquired active
Normal immune responses to rid the body of a specific pathogen require the activities of both T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes
Immunoglobulins are antibodies
Which of the following cell type is derived from monocytes wandering macrophages
Natural killer cells are a subtype of lymphocytes
Emigration refers to the movement of cells from the circulatory system into inflected tissue areas
B-lymphocytes are responsible for antibody-mediated immunity
Lack of reactivity of T cells and B cells to fragments of one's own proteins is known as self-tolerance
The proper sequence of phases in the process of phagocytes is chemotaxis, adherence, ingestion
After phagocytosis, which intracellular chemicals kill the microbe by a process called an oxidative burst lethal oxidants
The first stage of inflammation is vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels
The Class I major histocompatibility complex antigens mark the surfaces of all your body cells except your red blood cells
Antigens presenting cells include dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells
When stimulated, T cells that display the CD4 molecule on its membrane surface develop into helper T cells
Cancer cells and virus-infected body cellos can be killed before activation of adaptive immunity by these natural killer cells
Which of the following would be classified as a delayed hypersensitivity reaction allergic contact dermatitis
This group of about 20 anti-microbial substances promotes cytolysis, phagocytosis and inflammation complement proteins
In innate immunity, these are mainly used to kill infectious microbes and tumor cells natural killer cells
Which of the following is NOT a sign of inflammation mucus production
Which of the following intensifies the effect of interferons and promotes the rate of repair fever
When B and T cells are fully developed and mature, they referred to as being immunocompetent
This induces production of a specific antibody antigen
This can only stimulate an immune response if attached to a large carrie molecule hapten
This class of cells involved in specific immunity includes macrophages, B cells and dendritic cells antigen presenting cells or APC
This can only become "activated" when bound to a foreign antigen and simultaneously receiving a co-stimuate from a helper T-cell T cell
This action involves coating microbes with antibodies that make them more susceptible to phagocytosis opsonization
An acute allergic response can lead to anaphylactic shock
The condition or state where *blank* cells have antigen bound, but have not been co-stimuated is called anergy T
Most antigens have several *blank.* These chemical groupings induce the production of different antibodies or activate different T-cells epitopes
The protein fraction in plasma that contains the antibodies of an individual is the *blank* fraction. immunoglobulin
The initial steps in phagocytosis in order are: chemotaxis, adherence, and ingestion
List the five actions of antibodies 1.neutralizing 2. immobilization of bacteria 3. agglutination/precipitation 4. activation of complement 5. enhancement of phagocytes
A natural exposure to an infectious agent that leads immunity by the person making antibodies is called (active/passive) immunity active
(Lysozyme/Granzyme) is an enzyme that breaks down the cell wall of certain bacteria. It is found in several body secretions, including tears. Lysozyme
Cells that lack an antigen receptor but target a wide variety of infectious microbes and certain cancers using perforin and granzymes Natural Killer Cells
Display CD8 markers and may have MHC-1 molecules attached to a foreign antigen cytotoxic T cells
Those WBCs able to ingest any particular matter including invading microbes phagocytes
secrete interleukin II to co-stimulte the activation of T-cells active helper T cells
processes and presents exogenous antigens; includes macrophages, B cells, and dendritic cells antigen presenting cells
differentiates into plasma cells that secrete specific antibodies B cells
Are programmed to recognize the reappearance of previously encountered antigen Memory T cells & Memory B cells
Displays the CD4 marker on its surface (that makes this T cell susceptible to the entry of HIV) active helper T cells
Are used to produce hybridomas that secrete specific antibodies B cells
Specifically kills cells that are infected with a specific virus cytotoxic T cells
This subpopulation of T cells dampens the activity of both T cells and B cells and may function in preventing autoimmune disease regulatory T cells
Produced by basophils and mast cells, this group causes increased permeability, function in the adherence of phagocytes to pathogens, and can act as chemotactic agents Leukotrienes
These fatty acid-derived compounds are released by damaged cells and intensify the effects of histamine and kinins. They may also stimulate the emigration of phagocytes through the capillary wall. Prostaglandins
These polypeptides, transformed in the blood, induce vasodilation and increased permeability. An example is bradykinin. Kinin
Released by mast cells, basophils, and platelets. Cause dilation and increased permeability of capillaries. Histamine
Through cleavage, initiates a cascade of events that stimulates histamine release, attract neutrophils by chemotaxis, and promote phagocytes. Some components destroy bacteria Complement proteins
Exogenous antigens are antigens formed within a body cell False
Millions of different antibodies can be made because of genetic recombination in the variable regions in the antibody genes that produce antibodies. Individual genes are not present for each type of antibody True
Psychoneuroimmunology deals with the communication pathways that link the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems True
Apoptosis is a sequence of steps leading to a programmed death of a cell True
The activation of the complement can occur on several different ways True
The identification, activation, and proliferation of specific B and T cells involve a process called "clonal selection" True
The directional movement of cells in response to chemical release is called chemotaxis True
The soluble proteins secreted by plasma cells are called albumins False
Many immunocompetent cells may never be called into service during our lifetime True
Anaphylactic shock can result from an immediate hypersensitivity when an allergen enters the blood True
The passage of antibodies from a pregnant mother to her fetus is an example of "active immunity" False
Helper T cells participate in both cell-medicated and antibody-mediated immunity True
Created by: lawalk



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