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Eng linguistics

TermDefinition
Adjacency pairs Two phrases that often follow each other. I.e. 'How are you?' and 'Fine'
Anaphora Repetition of words at beginning of sentence. 'We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills. We shall never surrender.'
Anastrophe Inversion of the usual word order. For example, the usual English order of subject-verb-order might be changed to object-subject-verb
Antithesis Two opposites are introduced in the same sentence
Back formation the process of creating a new word by removing affixes. E.g. 'babysit' was derived from 'baby sitter'
Back-channelling Minor interjections, such as 'uh huh' and 'oh really', used to show active listening.
Collaborative Different utterances are working together in some way
Collocation Words that commonly occur together. E.g. 'crystal clear'
Declarative Sentence that presents something as fact
Definite article The' - particular and identifiable
Elliptical sentence A sentence that misses out some information. E.g. for 'Where was the cat?', the answer should be 'The cat sat on the mat' vs. the elliptical answer, 'On the mat'
Epanalepsis Beginning of sentence is repeated at end of sentence. 'You loved me, John Proctor, and whatever sin it is, you love me yet!'
Epistrophe Repetition of words at end of sentence.
Exclamative Sentence expressing shock, happiness, fear, etc. through use of an exclamation mark
Fricatives Consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel ('f' sounds)
Hedging Words used to soften the impact of a sentence – for example, ‘sort of’ or ‘somewhat’
Idiolect An individual's use of language
Idiomatic Pertaining to or conforming to the mode of expression characteristic of a language
Illocution Intended meaning of an utterance. See: locution, perlocution
Imperative An order
Indefinite article 'A' - not particular
Inference How the listener interprets an utterance
Interlocutor Person talking
Interrogative A question
Lexicon The vocabulary of a particular social class, person, field, language, etc.
Locution Literal meaning of an utterance. See: illocution, perlocution
Paralinguistic More than just the words - intonation, body language, pauses, etc.
Performative Actually achieving the purpose of the words. E.g. 'I swear', 'I permiss'
Perlocution Perceived meaning of an utterance. See: locution, illocution
Phoniatrics The study of speech and speech habits
Plosives Consonant made by blocking part of mouth so no air passes through ('p' sounds)
Pragmatics The meaning or intention of the words
Presupposition Assumptions made by a speaker when making an utterance
Register When context results in a commonly recognisable style to be produced, the resulting style is called a register (e.g. an informal register, a medical register, a scientific register)
Schema A set of expectations for behaviour created by the situation
Tag questions Questions added on to the end of a sentence seeking the other’s affirmation. For example, ‘it’s a nice day, isn’t it?’
TRIPE Transactional, Referential, Interactional, Phatic, Expressive
Created by: Georgia11
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