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Linguistic Terms

Linguistic Terms and Symbols

ablaut alternation between different vowels within one paradigm or in different derivatives of a root e.g. sing, sang, sung
affricate a combination of a stop and a fricative e.g. ch in church or j in jaw
approximant same as semivowel sound that falls between a vowel and a consonant e.g. y in you or w water
aspiration voiceless pronunciation of the first part of a vowel after a voiceless consonant, as if an h follows the consonant e.g. p in pen
attestation instance of a word form appearing in a text
attested appearing in a text or language known from written texts
cognate an etymologically related sound or word
dental a sound pronounced with the tongue touching the front teeth e.g. d or t
diacritic a distinctive sign such as the umlaut
diphthong a combination of a vowel and a semivowel within the same syllable e.g. mouse and pie
finite verb form a conjugated verb form e.g. am, is or was
fortis/fortes tense pronunciation of stops; can be paired with voicelessness, longer duration of stop and aspiration
gloss explanatory comment on a word from, consisting of grammatical information and translation
glottalization the partial closure of the vocal folds e.g. uh-oh between the schwa and the oh
infinite verb form unconjugated verb form e.g. the dictionary form of a verb
labial sound produced with the lips e.g. p or b
laryngeal sound produced with the larynx e.g. h
lenis/lenes lax, non-tensed, pronunciation of stops, characterized by the absence of features of fortis stops
morphology the study of word forms
occlusive stop articulation which blocks the vocal tract
palatal consonant pronounced with the hard palate
palatalization shifting of the pronunciation of a consonant toward the hard palate e.g. from k to ch as in chin from older *kin
paradigm set of all the inflectional forms of a word e.g. the paradigm of the present tense of the verb to be is: am, are, is, are, are, are
pharyngeal a sound produced with the pharynx
phoneme a minimally distinctive sound of a language e.g. t and d
phonetics the study of the pronunciation and perception of speech sounds
phonology the study of the function of speech sounds; describes a set of minimally distinctive sounds in a language
plosive stop the release burst of the consonant
resonant sonorant consonant; in English, inherently voiced consonants e.g. r, l, m, n
root the basic form of a word without suffixes or endings e.g. like is the root of liking, likely and likeable
schwa mid central vowel e.g. the and the second syllable of sofa
semivowel sound that falls between a vowel and a consonant e.g. y in you or w in water
sibilant a hissing sound e.g. s or z
stem root plus suffixes without the ending e.g writings
stop occlusive or plosive consonant e.g. t or b
suffix a part of a word with a grammatical or derivational function e.g. the second part of used, using, useful
syllabic like a vowel, forming the nucleus of a syllable
velar vowel pronounced with the soft palate e.g. k or g
* hypothetical precedes a word or sound that is reconstructed or otherwise not securely attested in writing
- indicates that the letters before or after it are part of a word e.g. oo in the word book
< > indicate that a particular sound has changed into another sound e.g. a to o
ā macron indicates that the duration of the vowel is longer than that of the same vowel without a makron
ś indicates that the consonant has a palatal pronunciation
š hachek indicates that the consonant has a palatal pronunciation
ʷ indicates that the preceding sound is pronounced with rounding of the lips e.g. qu in quick
Created by: KatetheCatLady
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