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RID NIC General Knowledge (written test)

American Sign Language (ASL) Language of American Deaf community. Visual-gestural language with grammar, culture, vocabulary distinct from English/other signed languages.
American's with Disabilities Act (ADA) Federal law (1990) required improvements in accessibility for all people with disabilities, incl. deaf. Sometimes referred to as a Civil Rights act.
Hearing Impaired Term used by some to refer to people with hearing loss. Most Deaf don't use this because of negative connotation of word "impaired".
Interpreter Term used to identify individuals who interpret. May also be used generically to include those to transliterate.
Manually Coded English (MCE) Term used for various signed language systems that attempt to visually represent English following grammar, using created or modified signs. ie. Signing Exact English (SEE), Pidgin Signed English (PSE)
Pidgin Signed English (PSE) Term used to refer to signing that occurs when deaf and non-deaf interact; PSE uses ASL vocabulary in English word order. Sometimes called Contact Signing.
Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf (RID) National professional organization and certifying body for interpreters and those interested in the sign language interpreting profession. RID has affiliate chapters in each state.
Repetitive Motion Disorders; Repetitive Strain Injury General term for conditions resulting from repeated and/or incorrect use of muscles, especially in hands/arms; potential job hazards for interpreters
Signing Exact English (SEE 2) Manual code for representing English. Follows English grammar, uses invented and modified signs to represent English vocabulary. SEE was developed in an effort to improve Deaf students' English skills
Sign-To-Voice Interpreting (S-V) Interpreting from a signed language into a spoken language
Source Language The language in which the original message is conveyed
Target Language The language in which the interpreted message is conveyed.
Transliterate The act of changing a message from one form of the language into another (same language); in the field of interpreting, commonly refers to spoken English/signed English
Transliterator Technical term used to refer to those who transliterate; transliterators are commonly referred to as interpreters
Voice-To-Sign Interpreting (V-S) Interpreting from a spoken language into a signed language
Interpretation Taking source language message, identifying meaning/speaker intent by analyzing linguistic/paralinguistic elements, making a cultural/linguistic transition to produce message in target language.
Minimal Language Competency Interpreting Interpreting for those not competent in any language, ASL or English (due to inadequate education, lack of exposure, other reasons). May use "home signs". Communication may involve props, gestures, pictures, CDI
Classifiers Signs used to represent general categories or "classes" of things; Can be used to describe size and shape of an object (or person), the object itself, or how the object moves/relates to other objects. Can be iconic or arbitrary.
deaf (Hearing View) Refers to the inability to hear as compared to "normal" hearing, generally seen as a deficit or an impairment; measured by decibels. AKA hearing impaired or mild, moderate, severe, profound hearing loss.
Deaf (Capital D) Term used to denote those who, in addition to having significant hearing loss, function by choice as members of the Deaf Community including cultural norms, values, traditions.
Non-Manual Markers Facial expressions and body movements; used to inflect signs (to change, influence, or emphasize meaning)
Pathology of Deafness Pathology: the study of disease; Deaf people don't consider themselves to have a disease or problem.
Abstract Classifiers CLs that are smaller than life size; shape and movement of which does not necessarily have iconic features.
Deaf (Deaf View) A label of pride & solidarity for those with similar experiences, shared form of communication, and subscribe to Deaf cultural norms, values, traditions
Abstract Language Language that is generic and lacking in specificity
Accessibility Modifications to building design, program delivery, communication; Will allow Deaf and disabled persons access to services provided by an institution or agency.
Adventitious Deafness To become deaf at some point after birth
Affect Refers to emotions or feelings
A-Language (L1) One's first language, usually the language of one's parents although not always the case; also known as mother tongue or native language
Ambivalence Having both negative and positive feelings about something; common reaction of members of an oppressed group who have both +/- feelings about themselves and the minority group with which they are affiliated
Anglicized ASL A form of signing which blends ASL with English-based signs; a contact variety more closely affiliated with ASL than English
Anglophone A person who uses English based communication as compared to French-based communication; common Canadian term for English-speaking people.
Association of Visual Language Interpreters of Canada (AVLIC) The national professional association and certifying body of sign language interpreters in Canada
Audism An attitude based on pathological thinking that results in a negative stigma toward anyone who does not hear; judges, labels, limits individuals on bases of hearing/speaking
Auditory Feedback Loop The channel through which hearing people hear and monitor their own voices as they speak
Aural-Oral Languages Languages based on a structured set of linguistic rules in which the communication is based on sound; spoken languages around the world fall into this category
Benefactors Are Perfect An idea frequently held by members of marginalized groups that the oppressor group members are somehow super-beings, also referred to as "magical thinking"
Bicultural Refers to an individual who has knowledge of two cultures, has developed socially appropriate behaviors necessary to fit into each.
Bilingual-Bicultural (Bi-Bi) Philosophy of Interpretation Philosophy based on belief that effective interpretation requires cultural and linguistic mediation to accomplish speaker goals, maintain dynamic equivalence; based on recognition of Deaf as oppressed minority; accepts ASL/Deaf Culture
Bilingual-Bicultural (Bi-Bi) Education Approach stresses ASL as instructional language for all subjects but English; goal of developing English & ASL competency; recognizes Deaf as oppressed minority; accepts ASL/Deaf Culture. Students study ASL, Deaf Culture, Heritage/History, Studies.
B-Language (L2) Refers to one's second language, one acquired by living in a country where that language is spoken, by interacting frequently with users, or by studying the language formally.
Certificate of Interpretation (COI) Professional certificate awarded by AVLIC to individuals who successfully complete both a knowledge and skills assessment.
C-Language A language one can "manage" to comprehend what is spoken/signed; individual speaks/signs with heavy accent, improper grammatical structure, frequent semantic errors.
Clients/Consumers Term used to refer to those for whom interpreters work; includes both Deaf and hearing individuals
Cloze Skills Ability to mentally fill-in-the-blanks when part of an utterance is obscured or when the receiver does not understand a term or phrase (closure).
Code of Ethics/Code of Professional Conduct Set of guidelines requiring individuals to develop effective decision making skills, a clear sense of beliefs/values, understanding of how society defines right/wrong, good/bad, & have the ability to apply these to professional interactions.
Code Switching The conscious or unconscious movement between ASL and English-like signing; often occurs due to the experience of oppression common to Deaf people
Communication Dynamics How people in a communication interaction react to or engage with one another and to the overall interaction.
Communication Facilitation Philosophy Set of beliefs re: the Deaf, ASL, communication dynamics; influences how one views her role & work (interpreter); believes Deaf = handicapped, ASL is means of communication with those less educated, sensitivity to factors influencing communication
Communication Continuous, transactional process of people trying to share info/ideas; they create a relationship by simultaneously sending/receiving messages; some clearly/overtly delivered, others have implied/unstated info; msgs often distorted (physical/psych noise)
Conceptually Accurate Signed English (CASE) manual code for English which combines English grammatical order with ASL signs and some invented initialized signs; choices of signs based on the intended concept or idea of the speaker
Conduit or Machine Philosophy Set of beliefs re: Deaf, ASL, comm. dynamics that influences one's role/work. Believes: Deaf=HC, need to learn self-care; word/sign equivalents btw signs/spoken Eng; Interpreter has no responsibility for interaction/communication dynamics taking place
Conference of Interpreter Trainers (CIT) An American organization of educators who teach interpretation; membership is international
Confidentiality The agreement that information that takes place in a professional relationship is not to be shared with others outside of the specific setting and relationship; based on a trust relationship between the professional and her clients.
Congenital Deafness To be born deaf or hard-of-hearing.
Consecutive Interpretation Process of interpreting into the target language after the speaker completes one or more ideas in the source language and pauses while the interpreter transmits that information; more accurate than simultaneous interpretation.
Consultative One of the individuals involved in the interchange has "expert" status or an enhanced command of the topic at hand.
Contact Varieties A mixture of two languages resulting from prolonged language contact between members of different linguistic communities; includes code-switching, code-mixing, and lexical borrowing; sometimes referred to as PSE.
Critical Thinking Skills Ability to break the whole into parts, examine in detail, look more deeply into text & determine its nature by engaging in disciplined reasoning, inferring, & deducing in order to extract the message carried "below words/signs" & explicitly stated info.
Cultural and Linguistic Mediation Interpreting in such a way that information has equivalent meaning and impact for individuals with different languages and cultural schema; requires an interpreter to make cultural and linguistic expansions and reductions.
Cultural Expansion Providing the contextual information required to make sense out of something that is signed or said to someone without the requisite schema or experiential frame.
Cultural Reduction Reducing the volume and sometimes the detail of information within an interpretation without affecting the meaning intended; done to meet communication and cultural norms of the target language.
Cultural View of Deaf People Accepts Deaf people as normal, capable humans rather than as disabled, abnormal, etc.
Culture Knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, laws, customs, other capabilities/habits acquired as a member of society; set of learned behaviors of people with their own language, values, rules of behavior, traditions. 3 subsets: materialistic, behavioral, cognitive
Culture (Subset A): Materialistic Material things such as food, clothing, other tangible items
Culture (Subset B): Behavioral Rules for behavior which can be observed, taught, and learned
Culture (Subset C): Cognitive That "appropriate" behavior learned and developed as a child, which has a deeper meaning and which is not easily observed or understood
Decibels A unit for expressing the relative intensity of sounds on a scale from zero for the average least perceptible sound to about 130 for the average level where sound induces pain.
Dependence on the "Benefactor" The phenomena of minority group members being dependent upon members of the power group for certain things they are unable to do for themselves.
Discourse Style The way a language requires that information be presented in a monologue or dialogue.
Dynamic Equivalence In an interpreted event, maintaining the "chemistry" between a speaker and her audience that allows a connection to be made and the speaker's goals to be accomplished.
Empowerment of the Client Behaving in a way that supports another's right to make decisions by vesting control in the hands of consumers rather than solely the interpreter's; avoiding the imposition of one's own opinions, advice, values, communication preference.
Empowerment A process of reclaiming one's own power in order to take charge of one's own life.
English-Based Signs A generic term used to refer to a variety of signing systems based on English structure rather than ASL structure; includes the Rochester method, SEE1, SEE2, CASE.
Environmental Factors phenomena in the area surrounding communication that can affect the interaction, including lights, extraneous auditory/visual noise, distance from the interpreter to the speaker, distance from the interpreter to the audience, etc.
Equivocal Language Words, signs, phrases that can be interpreted in more than one way; often misleading or confusing to the listener.
Ethical Behavior Making choices and acting in a way that respects others; grows out of a strong moral sense; requires the ability to think critically and the courage to choose to do the right thing.
Ethics Behavioral standards - a set of principles that defines what is judged appropriate or inappropriate; right vs wrong.
Ethnocentric An attitude that one's own race or culture is superior to all others.
Euphemistic Language The use of socially acceptable terms and phrases in place of blunt, descriptive words/phrases (ie the "powder room".
External Noise Actual, physical factors that interfere with communication; includes flickering of an overhead florescent light, the squeal of a poorly connected microphone, or the incessant coughing of someone in the room.
Fatalism or Passivity The tendency of members of an oppressed group to feel powerless to change or strike back at "the system"; a "go with the flow" and "don't rock the boat" attitude.
Fear of Freedom Lack of determined action that might lead to true equality/empowerment based on fear, sense of inferiority that 'paralyzes' the oppressed; common response among members of oppressed group, in spite of anger about injustice, discrimination, marginalization
Francophone A term used in Canada to refer to people who use French-based communication.
Frozen Form/Frozen Text Information or texts that are "fixed" - written, videotaped or audio taped.
Frozen Linguistic Register "Fixed" texts that are repeated verbatim every time used (ie. The Pledge of Allegiance); meaning is found more in the actions accompanying the text than in the words themselves.
Group Oppression Dominant group denigrates members of minority: their self-worth, abilities, intelligence, right to be different & affirmed in that difference; includes a denial of the minority groups language & opportunities to use it, and denigration of the culture.
Helper Philosophical Frame Views Deaf as HC, limited, unable to manage their affairs; believes Deaf are mentally, emotionally, experientially incapable of understand the world; views interpreter as caretaker with the purpose of helping.
High Visual Orientation (HVO) Term used for individuals who have no language skills in ASL, LSQ, English, French, or other resulting from developmental disability, educational/social deprivation; AKA minimal language skills, minimal language competency.
Horizontal Hostility Tendency of minority group members to turn anger on other members of the group; results range from barbed comments and putdowns to verbal/physical attacks and physical violence.
Institutionalized Oppression Overt/Covert attitueds )schools, media, homes, churches) that result in denigration of minority group's language/culture/personhood; a result of oppression; minority group has no power in institutions impacting lives/opportunities for self-determination.
La Langue Des Signes Quebecoise (LSQ) The rule-governed language used by most Deaf in Francophone areas of Canada; a complete/complex language; an integral part of French Canadian Deaf Culture.
Lag Time (Processing Time) The time used by an interpreter to analyze source language utterances, make cultural/linguistic adjustments before producing an equivalent message in the target language.
Lineage of Deaf Children 90% of all deaf children are born to hearing families with no deafness in immediate/extended families. Rate is higher among African Americans where rate of hereditary deafness is lower.
Linear Grammar Grammatical structure of a language wherein lexical items and parts of speech are produced singularly, one at a time, in a string of single lexical units.
Linguistic Expansion Stating implied or 'understood' information/ideas present in the source language message overtly in the interpretation when the information is required by the cultural/communication norms of the target language.
Linguistic Fluency Ability to manipulate language with the finesse of a native/near-native user; ability to properly shift registers, discuss technical/non-technical topics, 'play' with the language; bicultural skills mandatory.
Linguistic Reduction Reducing the volume and sometimes the detail of information present in the source language without affecting the meaning intended; done due to the linguistic norms and expectations in the target language.
Linguistics The study of languages and the structures of which they are composed.
Machine Philosophy (Conduit Philosophy) Belief set re: Deaf, ASL, comm.dynamics that influence how person views her interpreter role/work; believes Deaf=HC, need to learn self care, word-for-sign equivalence; interpreter has no responsibility for interaction/communication dynamics taking place.
Mentoring Arrangement in which a more experienced interpreter 'adopts' less experienced interpreter; serves as sounding board to review/evaluate the less-experienced interpreter's professional behavior, decision-making, quality of interpretation.
Modality Channel through which a message is expressed, specifically spoken or signed.
Multi-Leveled Grammar Ability of a language to produce more than one lexical item or more than one part of speech simultaneously.
Myth of the Misguided Child Belief by members of a majority group that individuals in a particular minority group don't know what is best for them and thus require 'guidance' by the majority group.
Myths Traditional stories that ostensibly explain the world view of a particular group of people or that explains a practice or belief.
Need for Approval from Marginalized Group Members The expectation/need for some expression of appreciation/gratitude to the majority group from the minority group; failure to receive approval often results in a sense of victimization.
Negative View of the Oppressed Group Stigmatization of members of the minority group because they do not measure up to standards established by the majority; the stigmatized group is marginalized - systematically shut out of opportunities that lead to inclusion and equality.
Oppression Unjust or excessive exercise of power or position; results in the disenfranchisement of others.
Oral Deaf People Deaf individuals who do not use sign language, preferring to use speech and speech-reading as their primary form of communication.
Oral Transliteration Making spoken English visible for an oral Deaf individual; includes repeating what is being said without speech, selecting words that are most easily speech-readable and sometimes using a gesture for clarification.
Oral Transliterator One who listens to a spoken English message, then rephrases that message into clearly speech-readable forms for a deaf consumer who uses speech and speech reading as primary forms of communication.
Paralinguistic Elements Elements that accompany and add meaning to the expression of language; includes such things as gestures, tone of voice/size of signs, visual/vocal affect, etc.
Passive Voice A type of sentence construction in which the actor performing the action indicated by the verb is not overtly identified.
Paternalism and Possessive Consciousness A caretaker attitude by members of the dominant group toward minority group members based on the assumption that they are unable to make appropriate decisions and need to be taken care of.
Physiological Noise Biological factors that interfere with communication such as illness, exhaustion, hunger.
Pragmatic Use of Language The way a language is actually used rather than language function; helps us make sense of the language we encounter in our interactions with others and determine the meaning of the utterance within the given context.
Process Models of Interpretation Attempts to graphically demonstrate the complex mental activities, decisions made, factors influencing interpretation; some models based on formal research, others developed by long-time practitioners based on reflection/introspection of the pro.
Professional Competence Having the knowledge and skills bas, as well as ethical judgment, to perform the task of a professional in a given field.
Professional Distance A social, psychological, physical boundary established to insure individuals function within appropriate professional roles; protects both the professional and the client.
Professionals Practitioners are expected to hold client interests paramount in all decisions made; have special knowledge, licensure/certification, follow a CPC; expected to be: trustworthy, prepared, discrete, able to avoid inappropriate involvement with clients.
Prosody The rhythm of a language including stress, inflection, intonation, pausing and phrasing that help listeners determine meaning and predict what the speaker will say next.
Psychological Noise Realities that exist in the heads of all communication participants that distract from/interferes with communication; ie. internal stress, personal judgments, random thoughts that pop into one's mind.
Real World Classifiers Classifiers that take on life-size proportions and sometimes look a bit like a reduced form of mime when being produced.
Reciprocal Signals Certain eye behaviors, head nods, verbal utterances (ie. right, uh-huh) to indicate that one is attending and comprehending (or not) the messages being received.
Reciprocity of Perspectives An assumption that the experiences and values of another group are identical to your own. Thus, if you traded places, members of the second group would come to view the world like yourself and develop concomitant values.
Register Frozen, formal, consultative, informal, intimate; each register has specific characteristics and unwritten rules determining turn-taking, complexity/completeness of sentence structure, choice of vocabulary.
Residual Hearing The ability to hear to some degree or at some frequencies in spite of partial hearing loss.
Resistance to Attempts for Liberation A fear on the part of members in the power group toward any attempts on the part of the oppressed group toward liberation or equality.
Rochester Method A manual code for English wherein each letter of the English alphabet is assigned a hand shape and all words communicated, with the exception of AND, are fingerspelled.
Schema An organizational or conceptual pattern in the mind; the contextual frame or 'script' that helps us interpret what is happening; learned informally from our social and cultural interactions.
SEE1 Seeing Essential English; a manual code for English wherein each syllable is given a separate manual movement.
Semantics The way meaning is created by the use and inter-relationship of words, phrases, and sentences; precise shades of meaning applied to words/signs in context.
Sight Translation Changing a message from the frozen form of one language into another signed or spoken language done on first sight, without the time normally required to prepare a formal translation.
Sign Supported Speech (SSS) (formerly called Manually Coded English - MCE) A broad term for a variety of English-based signing systems; composed on invented hand movements attempting to represent English in a manual/visual form, relying entirely upon the lexicon/syntax of English, accompanied with speech/lip movements
Signed English (SE) Combines English grammatical order with ASL signs as well as some invented initialized signs.
Sign-To-Voice (S-V) Interpretation process in which the source language message is signed (ASL, LSQ, MCE) and the output is spoken in English, French, or other auditory language.
Simultaneous Communication (Sim-Com) Speaking and signing at the same time; problems include omission of signs, semantic errors, unclear production of signs, confused mouth markers. AKA Sign Supported Speech.
Simultaneous Interpretation/Transliteration The process of interpreting/transliterating in the target language/code at the same time that the source language message is being delivered.
Size and Shape Specifiers (SASS) A specific subset of classifiers that function to describe various nouns; functions like English adjectives.
Speaker Goal The motivating purpose behind communication; includes a variety of things such as teaching, inspiring, counseling, teasing, scolding, selling, etc.
Speech-Reading A skill employed by some deaf/hh individuals to comprehend spoken communication; involves a combination of deciphering lip, cheek, throat movements, clarifying gestures and use of closure skills to determine meaning.
Stereotype A standardized mental picture that is held in common by members of a group and that represents an oversimplified opinion, affective attitude, or uncritical judgment.
Support Group A small group of professional peers committed to confidentiality, growth, honesty, and integrity.
Test of Interpretation (TOI) The test of interpreting skill required for certification in Canada, administered by AVLIC; must pass WTK first.
Total Communication (TC) First defined as using any means necessary to successfully communicate with a Deaf child; adopted and redefined by the education system to mean speaking and signing at the same time (Sim-Com).
Translation Changing a message from the frozen form of one language into the frozen form of another language.
Visual-Gestural Languages Based on a structured set of linguistic rules in which the communication base is the movement of the face and body rather than sound; sign languages throughout the world fall into this category.
Written Test of Knowledge (WTK) The test of knowledge required as the first step toward certification in Canada, administered by AVLIC, does not constitute 'partial certification'; must pass the TOI to be certified.
Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf (RID) Started in 1964 at Ball State Teacher's College; established standards, testing, and ethics; certifications include CI, CT, CDI-P, CDI, SC:L, NIC, etc.
Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Section 504 If receiving gov funding (ie. state schools) the entity must provide accessibility and accommodations for all disabilities; this covers students, parents, school personnel.
PL94.142 Education for all Handicapped Children Act; covers kids, all worthy of an education, all disabilities accepted despite severity; started mainstreaming frenzy.
Court Interpreters Act of 1978 An interpreter must be provided if a non-native English speaker is involved in court; not disability legislation, witness testimony must be consecutive.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Covers kids ages 0-21; includes IFSPs and IEPs; accounts for LRE; clarified PL94-142
Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) Law assumes mainstreaming and parents are responsible to prove mainstreaming is not LRE and often lose.
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Covers many aspects of life; unfunded mandate, required participation but no government funds provided; all private & public places must comply except if entity has fewer than 15 employees, can prove undue hardship.
Created by: ScratsPeanut
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