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Grammar Translation (Classical Method) Skills developed are primarily reading and writing. Focus is on translation skills; memorization used.
Direct Method (also known as Berlitz Method) Associate meaning directly with the target language. No translation is allowed. Use of the L1 is not allowed.
Audio-lingual Method Conduct oral/aural drills and pattern practice. Model the target language for learners. Overcome native language habits; form new target language habits; Use of mimicry; listening and repetition are important.
Silent Way Develop inner criteria for correctness by becoming aware of how the target language works—not by mimicking a model.
Desuggestopedia (Georgi Lazanov; method formerly called Suggestopedia) Desuggest limitations: teach lengthy dialogues through musical accompaniment, playful practice, and the arts; create positive and fun atmosphere; use of novelty.
Community Language Learning (based on the Counseling-Learning approach by Charles Curran) Learn non defensively as whole persons, students build community with one another; L1 is used. Include the elements of security, attention, aggression, reflection, retention, discrimination. Teacher is counselor, but also facilitates learning
Natural Approach (Krashen & Terrell) Listening is emphasized; associate meaning with target language directly. Delay speaking until students are ready; use of pictures with beginners to aid comprehension; use of L1; belief that L2 acquisition will proceed naturally.
Total Physical Response (James Asher) Understanding of language is developed before speaking (learners listen in the beginning); follow directions of the instructor without translation
Communicative Language Teaching Emphasis on interacting with others in the target language; Uses information gaps, role plays, games to create authentic situations; facilitate small groups for learning; teach grammar and vocabulary as they apply within a context.
Learning Strategy Training, Cooperative Learning, Multiple Intelligences (Gardner is creator of M.I.) Focus on learning how to learn. Emphasis on becoming a more self-regulated learner and on becoming better at working interdependently. Teach learning strategies, cooperation and collaborative techniques along with language
Authentic Assessment Assessment: worthwhile, significant and meaningful,” in contrast to tests that are multiple choice. Usually incorporate student voice. They are often rubric-based, and might include discussions, presentations, role-plays, projects, and journals.
Created by: rachaelah
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