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Respiratory system

Anatomy & Physiology

aerobic cellular respiration requires... an uninterrupted supply of oxygen and the removal of carbon dioxide waste
respiration the collective process by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are continuously exchanged between the atmosphere and the body's cells
multiple systems that work together in a coordinated process to produce respiration respiratory system, skeletal and muscular system, nervous system, and cardiovascular system
how respiratory system produces respiration promotes gas exchange between the lungs and atmosphere
how skeletal and muscular system produces respiration facilitates movement of air in and out of lungs
how nervous system produces respiration coordinates contraction of muscles for breathing
how cardiovascular system produces respiration transports oxygen and carbon dioxide between lungs and cells
general functions of the respiratory system air passageway, site for oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, odor detection, sound production, and varying levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood
respiratory system as an air passageway air is moved from the atmosphere to the alveoli as we breathe in and air is moved from the lungs to the atmosphere as we breathe out
respiratory system as a site for oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange oxygen diffuses from alveoli into blood and carbon dioxide diffuses from blood into alveoli
respiratory system and odor detection olfactory receptors in the superior nasal cavity serve to identify scents
respiratory system and sound production air moves across the vocal cords of the larynx (voice box), the vocal cords of the larynx vibrate, producing sound, and sounds resonate in the upper respiratory structures
respiratory system and O2 and CO2 blood levels rate and depth of breathing influence blood levels of oxygen and of carbon dioxide
structural organization upper respiratory tract and lower respiratory tract
upper respiratory tract larynx and above
lower respiratory tract trachea and below
functional organization the conducting zone transports air and the respiratory zone participates in gas exchange
conducting zone nose to terminal bronchioles
respiratory zone respiratory bronchioles to alveoli
nose main conducting passageway for inhaled air
nasal cavity oblong shaped internal space, formed by the nose anteriorly, and formed by the skull superiorly and posteriorly
purpose of the nasal cavity warm, cleanse, and humidify the air that is breathed in
how nasal cavity accomplishes its purpose air is warmed by extensive blood vessels, mucus traps dust, microbes, and foreign material, cilia sweep mucous toward the pharynx to be swallowed, moist environment humidifies, and air turbulence created by the conchae enhances all three processes
pharynx commonly called the throat, it is a funnel-shaped passageway posterior to the nasal cavity, oral cavity and larynx, and the lateral walls are composed of skeletal muscles
partitions of the pharynx nasopharynx, oropharynx, and larygopharynx
conducting pathways of the lower respiratory tract larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles
structures involved in gas exchange of the lower respiratory tract respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli
larynx also called the voice box, continuous with the laryngopharynx superiorly, continuous with the trachea inferiorly, and has several major functions
major functions of the larynx air passageway, prevents ingested materials from entering the respiratory tract, produces sound for speech, assists in increasing pressure in the abdominal cavity, and participates in both a sneeze and cough reflex
larynx and producing sound for speech ligaments (termed vocal cords) vibrate when air passes over them during expiration
larynx and assisting in increasing pressure in the abdominal cavity epiglottis closes over the larynx so that air cannot escape and this action is called the valsalva maneuver (what you do when you go poop)
larynx and participation in sneeze/cough reflex irritants in the nasal cavity can trigger a sneeze and irritants n the trachea and bronchi can trigger a cough
larynx anatomy formed and supported by nine pieces of cartilage (cartilage held in place by ligaments and muscles, and composed of single thyroid, cricoid, and epiglottis cartilages and paired arytenoid, corniculate, and cuneiform cartilages
thyroid cartilage largest laryngeal cartilage and is the anterior protusion in the laryngeal prominence (aka the Adam's apple) that aids in swallowing (NOTE THIS FUNCTION)
epiglottis spoon- or leaf-shaped, anchored to thyroid cartilage, projects posterosuperiorly into the pharynx, and closes over laryngeal duct inlet during swallowing
vocal ligaments composed primarily of avascular elastic connective tissue, covered with mucosa to form the vocal folds (true vocal cords), and produces sound when air passes between them
trachea flexible, slightly rigid, tubular organ, known as the windpipe, extends inferiorly through the neck, goes from the larynx to the main bronchii, immediately anterior to the esophagus, and posterior to part of the sternum
bronchial tree highly branches system of air conducting passages that originate at the main bronchi and progressively branch into narrower tubes ending in the smallest bronchiole passageways
as the tree continues to divide into smaller passageways it leads to tubes of <1 mm, the bronchioles (some are terminal bronchioles or the last part of the conducting zone and others are respiratory bronchioles or the first part of the respiratory zone)
main bronchi of the bronchial tree supported by incomplete rings of hyaline cartilage (ensures they remain open) and wall support lessening as bronchi divide
bronchioles of the bronchial tree have no cartilage; smaller diameter prevents collapse, have proportionally thicker layer of smooth muscle, and can contract and expand
contraction narrows the diameter of the bronchiole which is termed bronchoconstriction (less air through bronchial tree)
expansion increases the diameter of the bronchiole which is termed bronchodilation (more air through the bronchial tree)
respiratory zone composed of respiratory ducts, alveolar ducts, and alveoli (respiratory bronchioles subdivide to alveolar ducts which lead to alveolar sacs (clusters of alveoli)
alveoli saccular outpouchings that are in great number (300-400 million) in each lung, have openings in their walls (alveolar pores), provide for collateral ventilation, and are surrounded by pulmonary capillaries
characteristics of the lungs house bronchial tree and all respiratory portions of respiratory system, are located within the thoracic cavity on either side of the mediastinum, are protected by the thoracic cage, have conical shape w/ wide concave base and each has an apex (cupula)
apex of the lung superior and posterior to the clavicle
Hilum indented region on lung's mediastinal side
location of the base of the lung in the body rests inferiorly on the muscular diaphragm
right lung description larger and wider lung that is subdivided by two fissures into three lobes
two fissures of the right lung horizontal fissure and the oblique fissure
horizontal fissure of the right lung separates superior (upper) lobe from the middle lobe
oblique fissure of the right lung separates the middle lobe from the inferior (lower) lobe
left lung smaller and narrower of the lungs because of the heart's position, divided by one fissure into two lobes, has indentations to accomodate the heart and aorta (cardiac notch)
oblique fissure of the left lung separates the superior and inferior lobes
cardiac notch a groovelike impression on the left lung that provides space for the aorta of the heart
pleura serous membrane lining outer lung surfaces and adjacent thoracic wall that is composed of simple squamous epithelium
visceral pleura adheres to the lung surface
parietal pleura lines the internal thoracic walls, lateral surface of mediastinum, and superior surface of the diaphragm
the fact that each lung is enclosed in a separate visceral pleural membrane... helps limit the spread of infection
pleural cavity located between visceral and parietal serous membranes and it is considered a potential space when the lungs are inflated (visceral and parietal layers are almost touching at the point)
serous fluid produced by serous membranes covers pleural cavity surface (each cavity possess < 15 mL of fluid that is drained continuously by lymph), lubricates (allowing pleural surfaces to slide by easily)
chest wall anatomically configured to expand outward with the lungs clinging to the chest wall during expansion (due to surface tension of the serous fluid)
lungs have a lot of elastic connective tissue and naturally recoil
anatomic arrangement (how lungs remain inflated) outward pull of chest and inward pull of lungs with consequent "suction", intrapulmonary pressure > intrapleural pressure, and the difference in pressure keeps the lungs inflated (if pressure becomes equal, lungs deflate
intrapleural pressure pressure in the pleural cavity
intrapulmonary pressure pressure inside the lungs
respiration the exchange of respiratory gases between the atmosphere and the alveoli of the lungs and is organized into four continuous simultaneous processes
the four continuous simultaneous processes of respiration pulmonary ventillation, alveolar gas exchange, gas transport, and systemic gas exchange
pulmonary ventillation movement of respiratory gases between the atmosphere and the alveoli of the lungs
alveolar gas exchange (external respiration) exchange of respiratory gases between the alveoli and the blood (capillary beds surrounding it)
gas transport transport of respiratory gases within the blood between the lungs and the systemic cells
systemic gas exchange (internal respiration) exchange of respiratory gases between the blood and the systemic cells (capillary beds have oxygen rich blood and they send it to the body)
movements of respiratory gases (1-4) 1) air containing oxygen is inhaled into the alveoli inspiratory phase of pulmonary ventilation 2) O2 diffused from alveoli into pulmonary capillaries 3) blood from lungs transported to systemic cells 4) O2 diffuses from capillaries to systemic cells
alveolar gas exchange (O2) oxygen diffuses from alveoli into pulmonary capillaries
systemic gas exchange (O2) oxygen diffuses from the systemic capillaries into systemic cells
movement of respiratory gases (5-8) 5) CO2 diffuses from systemic cells into systemic capillaries 6) CO2 is transported within the blood from systemic cells to the lung 7) CO2 diffuses from pulmonary capillaries into the alveoli 8) air containing CO2 is exhaled from alveoli to atmosphere
systemic gas exchange (CO2) CO2 diffuses from systemic cells into systemic capillaries
alveolar gas exchange (CO2) CO2 diffuses from pulmonary capillaries into the alveoli
expiratory phase of pulmonary ventillation air containing CO2 is exhaled from the alveoli to the atmosphere
pulmonary ventillation known as breathing movement of air between atmosphere and alveoli consists of two cyclic phases
two cyclic phases of breathing inhalation and exhalation
inhalation inspiration bringing air into the lungs
exhalation expiration that forces air out of the lungs
quiet breathing rhythmic breathing that occurs at rest
forced breathing vigorous breathing that accompanies exercise
process of pulmonary ventillation automomic nuclei in brainstem stimulate skeletal muscles involved in breathing & muscles cyclically contract & relax (causes thoracic volume cyclic changes - result in a changing pressure gradient b/w lungs & atmosphere), air moves down pressure gradient
air moves down the pressure gradient enters lung during inspiration and exits lungs during expiration
mechanics of breathing involves several integrated aspects specific actions of skeletal muscles of breathing, dimensional changes within the thoracic cavity, pressure changes resulting from volume changes, pressure gradients, and volumes and pressures associated with breathing
skeletal muscles of breathing are classified into three categories muscle of quiet breathing, muscles of forced inspiration, and muscles of forced expiration
muscles of quiet breathing diaphragm and external intercostals
muscles of forced inspiration include sternocleidomastoid, scalenes, pectoralis minor, serratus posterior superior, and erector spinae
muscles of quiet breathing are involved in... normal rhythmic breathing at rest and alternately contract and relax
muscles of forced inspiration are involved in... deep inspiration during heavy exercise & all but the erector spinae are located in more superior location to thoracic cavity so they can move the rib cage superiorly, laterally, & anteriorly and result in greater increase in volume of the thoracic cavity
erector spinae muscles involved in forced inspiration are located along the length of the vertebral column so they... aid in lifting the rib cage
muscles of forced expiration internal intercostals, abdominal muscles, transverse thoracis, and serratus posterior inferior
muscles of forced expiration are involved in... contracting during a hard expiration (i.e. coughing), either pulling the rib cage inferiorly, medially, and posteriorly or compressing the abdominal contents
accessory muscles of breathing refers to the muscles of forced expiration when they are paired with the muscles of forced inspiration
volume changes in the thoracic cavity occurs in three dimension vertically, laterally, and anterior-posteriorly
vertical dimension changes result from movement of diaphragm diaphragm forming rounded "floor" of the thoracic cavity and is dome-shaped when relaxed, but the central portion flattens and moves inferiorly when contracted (presses against abdominal viscera and decreases vertical dimension of the thoracic cavity)
only small movements of the diaphragm are required for breathing, but... greater changes occur during forced expiration
lateral dimension changes rib cage elevation widening thoracic cavity, rib cage depression narrowing thoracic cavity, and changes in this occur due to all the muscles of breathing except the diaphragm
anterior-posterior dimension changes inferior portion of sternum moves anteriorly and then posteriorly, and occurs due to all muscles of breathing except the diaphragm
air pressure gradient when force per unit area is greater in one place than in another
if a gradient exists between two interconnected regions air moves from region of higher pressure to region of lower pressure and continued until pressure become equal
atmosphere air in environment surrounding us
atmospheric pressure pressure gases in the air exert on the environment, changes with altitude, and increased altitude = "thinner air" = lower pressure (at sea level, value is 760 mm Hg = 14.7 lbs per square inch = 1 atm.)
volumes and pressures associated with breathing atmosphere, atmospheric pressure, alveolar pressure, intrapulmonary pressure, intrapleural pressure, and volume change in thoracic cavity
alveolar volume collective volume of alveoli within the lungs
intrapulmonary pressure fluctuates with breathing, may be higher, lower, or equal to atmospheric pressure, is equal to atmospheric pressure at end of inspiration and expiration
intrapleural pressure fluctuates with breathing, is always lower than the intrapulmonary pressure to keep lungs inflated, and prior to inspiration, is about 4 mm Hg lower than intrapulmonary pressure (756 mm Hg)
volume change in thoracic cavity establishes pressure gradient between atmosphere and thoracic cavity
gradient determines direction of air flow increase in the thoracic cavity during inspiration (decrease in pressure in thoracic cavity and air moves into the lungs), decrease in thoracic cavity during expiration (increase in pressure in thoracic cavity and air moves out of lungs)
increased resistance requires more forceful inspirations muscles of inspiration are working harder and can cause four-fold to six-fold increase in energy expenditure (individuals with these conditions can become exhausted from breathing alone)
pulmonary ventillation process of moving air into and out of the lungs/ amount of air moved between atmosphere and alveoli in one minute
tidal volume amount of air per breath
respiration rate number of breaths per minute
pulmonary ventillation (6 L/minute) tidal volume x respiration rate (500 mL x 12 breaths/min)
anatomical dead space space in respiratory tract in the conducting zone that has no exchange of respiratory gases and is about 150 mL
alveolar ventillation amount of air reaching the alveoli per minute and deep breathing maximizes this
equation for alveolar ventillation (tidal volume - anatomic dead space) x respiration rate [(500 mL - 150 mL) x 12 = 4.2 L/min.]
physiologic dead space normal anatomic dead space + any loss of alveoli, some respiratory disorders decrease the number of alveoli participating in gas exchange (due to damage to alveoli or changes in respiratory membrane (i.e. pneumonia)
spirometer measures volume of air that enters and leaves the lungs and can be used as a diagnostic and assessment tool of respiratory health, volumes vary throughout a 24-hour period and during different stages of life
four volumes measured by spirometry tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), expiratory reserve volume (ERV), residual volume
tidal volume amount of air inhaled or exhaled during quiet breathing
inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) amount of air that can be forcibly inhaled beyond the tidal volume, measure of lung compliance
expiratory reserve volume (ERV) amount that can be forcibly exhaled beyond tidal volume, measure of lung and chest wall elasticity
residual volume amount of air left in the lungs after the most forceful expiration
four respiratory capacities calculated from respiratory volumes inspiratory capacity (IC), functional residual capacity (FRC), vital capacity, and total lung capacity (TLC)
inspiratory capacity (IC) tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume
functional residual capacity (FRC) expiratory reserve volume + residual volume, defined as the volume left in the lungs after a quiet expiration
vital capacity tidal volume + inspiratory and expiratory reserve volumes, defined as the total amount of air a person can exchange through forced breathing
total lung capacity (TLC) sum of all volumes, including residual volume, and defined as the maximum volume of air that the lungs can hold
forced expiratory volume (FEV) percentage of vital capacity that can be expelled in a specific period of time (inspire as much air as possible and expel from the lungs as quickly as possible)
FEV1 percentage expelled in one second (75-85% in a healthy person, but decreases in individuals with decreased ability to expire (i.e. emphysema
maximum voluntary ventillation (MVV) greatest amount of air that can be taken into, & then expelled from the lungs in 1 minutes (breathing as quickly and as deeply) and can be as high as high as 30 L/min (compared to 6 L/min at rest) & inds. w/ respiratory disorder have lower than normal MVV
Created by: Nicolekr



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