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HOR/Con. Elections

QuestionAnswer
Did the Constitution set the exact size of the HOR? No, it only says it's size must be distributied proportionaly according to states' population.
How many representatives are guaranteed to each state by the Constitution? At least one.
How many states have one seat currently in the HOR? Seven
Reapportionment? Direction by the Constitution to reapportion House seats after each Census. (10 years)
Reapportionment Act? (1929) Set the maximum number of representatives in the House to 435.
About how many citizens does each seat in the House represent? 700,000
Why is reapportionment important? It changes the number of seats a state has and the number of votes in the Electoral College.
Does the Constitution define congressional districts? No.
In what year did Congress stipulate that all seats in the HOR would be filled from single-menber districts? 1842
What law gave each state the power to draw it's own boundary lines for congressional districts? The 1842 Law
Gerrymandering? Drawing congressional district lines to benefit one's own party
What is one effect of gerrymandering? It protects imcumbents and discourages challengers
Another effect of gerrymandering? Strengthens the majority party and weakens the opposition
Yet another effect of gerrymandering? Can increase or decrease minority representation.
What type of area dominated many state legislatures? Rural
What case put forth "one person, one vote"? Wesberry v. Sanders (1964)
What did Wesberry v. Sanders cause? Wide redistricting that favored cities and suburbs.
What is one restiction the Supreme Court has placed on redistricting? Equally populated
What is one restiction the Supreme Court has placed on redistricting? Districts must be compact.
What is one restiction the Supreme Court has placed on redistricting? Lines must be contiguous or connected.
What is one restiction the Supreme Court has placed on redistricting? Cannot dilute minority voting power.
What is one restiction the Supreme Court has placed on redistricting? Cannot be drawn solely on race. can be a factor.
What has the Supreme Court not eliminated? Why? Gerrymandering. Partisan reasons.
What has the most important factor in congressional elections over the past 50 years? Incumbancy
What percent of House incumbents win? 90 percent
What percent of Senate incumbents win? 75 percent
What is the main reason incumbants usually win? Money
What is the ratio incumbents outspend challengers by? More than 2:1
2nd reason incumbents win? Visibility
Visibility? Better known to the voters.
3rd reason incumbents win? Constituent service
What do members of Congress do to gain support? Casework for their district (money and jobs)
What is "pork"? legislation the allows reps to bring money and jobs to their districts.
4th reason incumbents win? the franking privilege
The franking privilege? The right of members of Congress to mail newsletters to their constituents at the gov's expense.
What has Congress recently added to the franking privilege? Emails and recorded phone calls
5th reason incumbents win? Gerrymandering
What do members of the House often represent? heavily gerrymandered districts that support incumbents
What do gerrymandered districts discourage? Strong challengers from trying to compete with incumbents
What is one consequence of the Incumbent Advantage? Experienced leaders in Congress
What is one consequence of the Incumbent Advantage? discourages radical change, but encourages close relationships with intrest groups
What is one consequence of the Incumbent Advantage? They benefit from existing campaign finance laws, therefore they have no motivation to reform them.
What do incumbents have opprotunites to participate in? Highly visible activites covered by local radio stations and newspapers.
Created by: 1314ryanmartin