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AP EURO CH 25

Ch 25: age of Imperialism + WW1

QuestionAnswer
Why was europe politically/ economically dominant over the rest of the world advanced in science, technology, industry, agriculture, weapons, etc and loyalty of inhabitants = effective resource deployment, superior mindset
what was the mindset in 1st half of the 19th c anti imperialist
which country was supreme and why? britain becuase first country to experience industrial revolution
how much of the world came under european control during late 19th c 1/5 of land and 1/10 of population
define new imperialism european country invests in less industrialized country + develops infrastructure _ transforms economy+ arrangements with local gov
3 methods of imperial control direct rule (full annexation as colony), protectorate (local ruler controlled by europeans), sphere of influence (european country gets special privileges but not involved in politics)
lenins view on imperialism capitalists develop own economy then get bored and try to make colonies to find investments, new markets, raw materials
motivations for imperialism new markets, raw materials, surplus population, christian missionaries, nationalism, military bases, social darwisnism, economic security
where did most european emigrants go americas and australia
open door policy all nations have equal trade access to china
what made the US an imperial and pacific power victory in spanish american war
major imperialist powers britain, france, US, germany, italy
jingoism super patriotism in britain as a result of opposition to russian power in balkans/mediterranean
what was the significance of what happened in 1871 creation of germany upset balance of power that congress of vienna had forged
3 emperors league germany, austria, russia
what happpened in russo turkish war and what were the results slavs in ottoman empire revolt against turkish rule, russia helps them so it can get constantinople, result was that slavic states freed from ottoman rule and russia gets land
what 3 things did congress of berlin do and the result reduced bulgaria, Austria given bosnia and herzegovina, britain and french get land , basically made russia mad at germany and created tension
triple alliance germany, ah , italy
why did italy join austria hungary and germany it wanted colonial expansion + opposed to french
why did france and russia ally against germany political isolation + need for foreign capital
what made britain come out if its splendid isolation german competition over industry + naval race
what was germanys risk theory idea that if they could damage british navy they could make it inferior to navy of another country
what was entente cordiale agreement between britain + france to be peaceful, recognize holdings
when and what was the russo japanese war in 1904, russia fights japan for manchuria and japan helped by british and russia lost
what was the first moroccan crisis kaiser willhem made speech about moroccan independence + german right to be part of its destiny which insulted french, then at a conference germany was embarassed + france and britain get closer
what was triple entente and why was it bad for germany alliance between russia, britain, france --> 2 front war for germany
who were the young turks? group of modernizing reformers that wanted to bring back the ottoman empire
what did the slavic balkan states want? who would lead? wanted to be independent, some wanted to be united under serbia
what was the bosnian crisis russia agreed to support austrian annexation of bosnia in exhchange for control of dardanelles but britain and france dont let it
what happened in the 2nd moroccan crisis germany sends ships to agadir in france;s morroco to "protect their interests" there and is once again embarrassed and france and britain get closer
what happened in balkan wars italy attacks ottoman empire bc wants libya, which encourages balkan states to attack ottoman empire and win. then they fought amongst themselves in 2nd balkan war
what tension did the balkan wars create austria determined to limit serbs and russians protected serbs = tension
what happned on june 28 1914 serbian nationalists assasinates archduke francis ferdinand in sarajevo, bosnia
what was the black hand serbian terrorist group who planned assasination
how did germany react to assasination said austria should attack serbia fast and they would support it
what happened on july 23 austrans send an ultimatum to serbians
how did russians respond to serbian ultimatum ordered partial mobilizaion against austrians
list the order of mobilizations russia partial mobilization, austria mobilizes against russia, germany mobilizes against russia + france, britain declares war on germany
schlieffen plan outflank french defenses by distracting them with weak left wing and send strong right wing through belgium to envelop from behind, leave some troops to guard east prussia from russia
causes of WWI austrian war against serbia, german desire to be world power, naval race, imperialism,
advantages of each side allies (more soldiers + $ + naval power) central (first attack + internal lines of communication)
after the battle of the marne how did the war change became about position instead of movement, trench warfare
what 2 countries joined central powers and why turkey bc didnt like russia and bulgaria bc enemy of serbia
what countries joined allies? why? italy for promise of italia irredenta and japan to put pressure on china
who was colonel t E lawrence led arab independence from turkey, supported by allies
trend in battles at verdun and somme? defense was superior, tons of casualties with no result
what did the british do at sea? what did the germans do british imposed strict blockade, germans has submarine warfare and sunk neutral ships like lusitania which angered americans
why did america enter war and when germans announce untrestricted sub warfare so US breaks off relations, russian revolution overthrows tsar, in april 1917
why was collapse of russia the zenith of german success allowed germany to tkae control of eastern european forces + work harder on the western front
treaty of brest litovsk bolsheviks yield poland, finlands, baltic states, ukraine to germany + indemmnity
what happened in march 1918 germany launched last offensive and reached marne but got no further, army exhausted, allied troops increase, austrians collapse in italy, turkey + bulgaria pull out
president wilson 14 points self determination, free trade, disarmament, league of nations
what happened to german gov after war became socialst republic under German SDP
casualties total 10 million dead, 20 million wounded
which empires dissolved from ww1 german, AH, ottoman, russian
effects of war great empires dies, europe no longer center of world, people turn to dictatorship and fascism,
role of turkey in the war ruled by young turks and allied with central powers, but kept getting defeated so pulled out,
what happened to ottoman emprie in peace of paris split up between british and french
who was ataturk general who drove greeks out of anatolia and formed new secular independedent republic of turkey
who were the big 4 Wilson (US), georges clemencau(france), david lloyd george (britain), vittorio orlando (italy)
obstacles to peace of paris ethnic groups did not want big powers to decide map, france was ruthless against germany, public opinion is big factor, communism
treaty of versailles provisions league of nations to maintain peace, colonial areas become mandates, france gets alsace lorraine, germany limited to 100000 men
treaty of versaille effects in east germany ;oses part of silesia, czhecoslovkia formes, yugoslavia, , finland estonia latvia poland become ind states
treaty of versailles reparations war guilt clause makes germany completely guilty and rerparations clause says germany has to pay full cost of war with 5 billion annually until price set
criticism for peace treaty made french rely pn british, violates liberal + idealistic self determination policies, did not end imperialism, keynes says it is a carthiginian peace and will lead to more war
problems in AH created by peace new boundaries = separates raw materials from markets + hositllity among ethnic groups
# of available soldier for major powers germany (2mill) france (1mill) russia (1 mill), AH (0.8 mill( britain (.7 million),
what led to the march revolution in russia ineffecinet wartime tsar gov, decreasing resources, hunger, worker strikes, disoginaizaitno in army, corrupt gov
march revolution in russia worker demonstrations happen in petrograd and troops dont fire so tsar abdicates, power goes to duma
alexander kerensky's gov provisional gov under duma cadets, supported by mesheviks, were pro war but this led to more unrest + collapse
what did bolsheviks watn all political power go to soviets
what did trosky and lenin do armed assault on gov to take over + establish communist dictatorhsip
what happneed in gov elections social revolutionaries won majority, but then bolsheviks red army dispersed it and came firmly into power
what did bolsheviks do (5 things) nationalized land + turned it over to peasants, factory workers put in charge of plants, state seized banks, property of church goes to state, took russia out of war
Created by: mhaq.16