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Bones and Joints

Bones & Joints

bone stores which minerals? calcium and phosphorus
yellow marrow functions as what? energy storage
red marrow functions as what? haemopoetic function
what are the four types of bones based on their gross morphological appearance? long bones, short bones, flat bones, and irregular bones
what are the three types of bone based on their internal structure? 1.cortical (compact) bone 2.cancellous (spongy/trabecular) bone 3.subchondral bone
cancellous bone consists of a meshwork of struts or ____ trabeculae
where is subchondral bone found? at joints underlying hyaline cartilage
how does bone initially form? as a disorganized coarse mesh called woven bone. this type is found in the fetus and post-injury
bone is a ____ tissue and consisting of cells embedded in a _____ connective, matrix
what is bone's primary inorganic component? calcium hydroxyapatite
what are the primary organic components of bone? collagen (mainly type 1) proteoglycans glycoproteins (osteocalcin, osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, & osteonectin)
what are osteoblasts derived from and what is their responsibility? they are derived from osteoprogenitor cells and are responsible for depositing bone
what do osteoblasts secrete? small vesicles with organic bone matrix precursors onto the appositional surface.
what do osteoblasts communicate with neighboring osteoclasts via? gap junctions
how are osteocytes formed and what are they responsible for? they form when osteoblasts become surrounded with matrix. they are responsible for the resorbtion of bone
how to osteocytes communicate with neighboring osteocytes? via long processes
what are osteoprogenitor cells and what can they differentiate into? they are undifferentiated mesenchymal cells. they can differentiate into either osteoblasts or under low oxygen tension chondroblasts
where are osteoprogenitor cells found? they are found on the periosteal surface as well as lining haversian canals
what does the ruffled border of osteoclasts secrete? H+ ions lysosomal hydrolases collagenase
unlike osteoblasts, osteoclasts orginate from what? monocyte precursors (granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cell)
what are howship's lacunae? small cavities that form when osteoclasts resorb bone
what are the two ways bone can form? 1. intramembranous ossification (like bones of the cranial vault, face and clavicles) 2. endochondral ossification (all other bones)
describe intramembranous ossification. it occurs when mesenchymal cells differentiate directly into osteoblasts. the osteoblasts then start laying down spciules of bone
describe endochondral ossification. occurs when a hyaline cartilaginous model continues to grow and forms as a scaffold for the developing bone
in the diaphysis, what do chondrogenic cells differentiate into? osteoblasts
during bone formation, what does the perichondrium surrounding the diaphysis become? periosteum
at what location do long bones grow in length? at the epiphyseal plate
how does the epiphyseal plate elongate? by proliferation of chondrocytes
what are the primary ossification centers? where endochondral ossification begins, responsible for the formation of the diaphysis of long bones
what are lamellae? highly organized and arranged sheet of mature compact bone
what are the two types of lamellae? 1. outer circumferential lamellae found on the periosteal surface 2. inner circumferential lamellae found on the endosteal surface
where are the haversian canals located? they are located in the midcortex
what ties the periosteal membrane to the bone surface? sharpey's fibers
what are canaliculi? small canals that connect the lacunae and allow the osteocytes to communicate via long processes with gap junctions
what are central canals? canals containing a neurovascular bundle that supplies the surrounding bone.
what are volkman's canals? canals that allow central canals of adjacent osteons communicate
what are the three distinct processes involved in the microstructure of bone? 1. growth 2. modeling - primary bone 3. remodeling - secondary bone
what is appositional growth? growth that increases diameter by adding new bone under the periosteum
what is longitudinal growth? growth that increases bone length by adding new bone at the growth plates
define modeling (aka surface remodeling) the process by which bones modify their gross morphology and internal architecture - limited in mature bones. it is also the primary process by which bones adapt to their mechanical environment
define remodeling the process by which bone matrix is turned over, conducted by BMU - basic multicellular unit
what do BMUs (basic multicellular units) do? turn over cylindrical packets of bone by: 1. localized destruction - resorption space 2. formation of new concentric lamellae - haversian system
what four things drive remodeling? 1. mobilization of calcium 2. removal of microdamage 3. vascularization 4. mechanical stress
the compressed side of bone is electro____ and the tension side is electro____ negative, positive
osteoblasts are stimulated by what to deposit bone? negative piezoelectric charges
osteoblasts are stimulated by what to resorb bone? positive piezoelectric charges
what is the mechanostat hypothesis? that strain magnitude within the bone regulates modeling and remodeling
according to the mechanostat hypothesis, an above acceptable strain level results in what two things? modeling stimulated and remodeling suppressed
the production of parathyroid hormone results in what? osteoblasts have receptors that recognize this hormone and they stimulate osteoclasts to resorb bone to liberate calcium
what hormone is secreted when the blood calcium level rises? calcitonin
what gland secretes calcitonin? thyroid
calcitonin inhibits what? osteoclast activity and thus bone resorption
the sutures of the skull are what types of joints? fibrous joints
cartilaginous joints occur when bones are joined by what or what hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage
Created by: fs33



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