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Anatomy C1

Human History, Homeostasis, Body Cavities, Organ Systems, Orientation/Sections

QuestionAnswer
What is Anatomy? Study of breaking up the body into its parts
What is physiology? Study of how the parts function
Hunter Gatherer Lifestyle Nomadic clusters of people, spaced far apart, minimal spread of disease, healthy, always moving
Agricultural Lifestyle Established residences, generations stayed in the same area, disease from parasitic worms in soil, people contaminated with bacteria and viruses, malnutrition, stunted growth, tooth decay due to sedentary lifestyle
Healers/Medicine Men Lifestyle Methods eventually replaced by plant and herbal remedies as people got interested in how the human body heals itself, examining corpses to determine the cause of death
Modern Studies of the Human Body Lifestyle Terms, provedures, techniques, and medical language were developed and continue to be developed as modern medicine prolongs the human lifespan
Homeostasis Maintaining a stable environment
Self-regulating mechanisms Homeostatic mechanisms
Receptors Provide info about the condition of the internal environment ex. brain
Control Center determines a specific value such as body temp
Effectors control responses that change the internal environment ex. muscles shivering when you are cold
Negative Feedback Mechanism When all 3 self-regulating mechanisms work to maintain homeostasis
Example of Negative Feedback Mechanism Process STIMULUS Change occurs in the internal environment (cold temperature) RECEPTORS Brain makes note (low temperature) CONTROL CENTER Comparitive analysis (Compares low temperature to 98 degrees) EFFECTORS (muscles shiver) RESPONSE (Body temperature is correc
Four Main Body Cavities Cranial Cavity, Vertebral Cavity, Thoracic Cavity, Abdominopelvic Cavity
Cranial Cavity Contains the Brain and minor cavities (oral, nasal, orbital, middle ear)
Oral Cavity Teeth, Tongue, Mouth
Nasal Cavity Sinuses
Orbital Cavity Eyes and Eye Muscles
Middle Ear Cavity middle ear bones
Vertebral Cavity Contains the spinal cord
Thoracic Cavity Contains lungs, esophogus, trachea, thymus
Abdominopelvic Cavity Contains stomach, liver, spleen, gall bladder, small intestine, large intestine, urinary bladder, reproductive organs
Axial Portion Head, neck, thorax, abdomen, pelvis
Thoracic and Abdominopelvic Membranes (Four) Serous Membrane, Pleural Membrane, Pericardial Membrane, Peritoneal Membrane
Serous Membrane thin, lines the wall of thoracic and abdominopelvic regions
Pleural Membrane surrounds each lung
Pericardial Membrane surrounds the heart
Peritoneal Membrane surrounds the organs of the abdominopelvic region
Organ Systems (11) Integumentary, Skeletal, Muscular, Nervous, Endocrine, Cardiovascular, Lymphatic, Digestive, Respiratory, Urinary, Reproductive
Integumentary System FUNCTION body covering, protect and regulate ORGANS skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, sebaceous glands
Skeletal System FUNCTION support, movement ORGANS bones, ligaments, cartilage
Muscular System FUNCTION support, movement ORGANS: muscles which provide force
Nervous System FUNCTION integration, coordination ORGANS brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory organs (ex. eyes, ears)
Endocrine System FUNCTION control metabolic activities of body structures (parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas) ORGANS Glands that secret hormones (pituitary, thyroid)
Cardiovascular System FUNCTION move blood through blood vessels and transport substances (blood, oxygen, nutrients) throughout body ORGANS heart, arteries, capillaries, veins
Lymphatic System FUNCTION transport ORGANS lymph vessels, lymph fluid, lymoh nodes, thymus, spleen, and fluids between tissues
Digestive System FUNCTION absorption, excretion ORGANS mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharnyx, esophogus, stomach, liver, gall bladder, pancreas, small/large intestines
Repiratory System FUNCTION absorption, excretion ORGANS nasal cavity, pharnyx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
Urinary System FUNCTION absorption, excretion ORGANS kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra
Reproductive System FUNCTION create offspring ORGANS Males: scrotum, penis, testes Females: ovaries, vagina, uterus
Anatomical Position Erect, Arms at sides, palms facing forward, feet straight, face forward
Relative Position Terms used for the location of one body part in respect to another
Axial Refers to all body parts in the cranial, vertebral, thoracis, and abdominopelvic regions
Appendicular refers to all body parts not found in cranial, vertebral, thoracic, and abdominopelvic regions
Superior A body part is above another or closer to the head
Inferior A body part is below another or closer to the feet
Anterior (Ventral) A body part is located towards the front of the body
Posterior (Dorsal) A body part is located towards the rear of the body
Medial An imaginary line that divides the body into the right half and left half, medial is closest to this line
Anatomical Position Erect, Arms at sides, palms facing forward, feet straight, face forward
Relative Position Terms used for the location of one body part in respect to another
Axial Refers to all body parts in the cranial, vertebral, thoracis, and abdominopelvic regions
Appendicular refers to all body parts not found in cranial, vertebral, thoracic, and abdominopelvic regions
Superior A body part is above another or closer to the head
Inferior A body part is below another or closer to the feet
Anterior (Ventral) A body part is located towards the front of the body
Posterior (Dorsal) A body part is located towards the rear of the body
Medial An imaginary line that divides the body into the right half and left half, medial is closest to this line
Lateral Body part located to the side with respect to the imaginary medial line
Proximal Describes a part that is closer to the trunk of the body or closer to a specified point or reference to another point
Distal Opposite of proximal, part that is farther from the trunk or farther from a specified point of reference than another part
Superficial (External) Situated near the surface
Deep (Internal) Describes parts that are more internal
Three Body Sections Sagittal, Transverse, Coronal
Saggital a lengthwise cut that devides body into left and right portions
Transverse a cut right/left across, divides the body into superior and inferior portions
Coronal refers to a section that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions
Created by: hutchisongirls