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Heart and Chest

Anatomy

QuestionAnswer
What part of the heart takes up the Sternocostal Surface? Rt Ventricle
What part of the heart takes up the Diaphragmatic Surface? Mainly Lt Ventricle, portion of Rt Ventricle
What makes up the base or posterior surface of the heart? Mainly left atrium, with smaller portion of rt atrium
What makes up the apex of the heart? Tip of left Ventricle
What makes up the Pulmonary Surface? Mainly left ventricle
What will cause an Atrial Septal Defect? Incomplete closure of the superior portion of the foramen ovale in the interatrial septum.
What does the Rt Coronary Artery Supply? SA node, AV node, rt atrium, rt vent, posterior third of AV septum
What are the two branches of the the Left Coronary Artery? Left Circumflex and Left Anterior Descending
What supplies most of the left ventricle, most of the intraatrial septum, and the left atrium? Left Coronary artery
What are the three most common sites for coronary artery occlusion? LAD of the Left Coronary Artery, Circumflex Branch of the LCA, and Right Coronary Artery
To which levels is ischemic heart pain referred? T1 - T4,5 Can manifest as neck, arm, or chest pain
Where to the head and tubercle of the rib articulate? Head articulates with veterbral bodies, and the tubercles articulate with the transverse process of vertebra
Which rib articulates with the manubrium at the sternal notch? 1st Rib
Which ribs articulate with the sternal body? 3-7
Which rib articulates with the sternal angle? (angle of Louis?) 2
Which ribs articulate with the abdominal wall? 11,12
Which ribs articulate with the cartiledge of the superior rib? 8-10
Where is the tracheal bifurcation? Angle of Louis (sternal angle), also site of the 2nd costal cartiledge articulation; T4,5
Where does the clavicle articulate? With the manubrium and the Acrominon of the Scapula
Where verts does the sternal angle correspond with? T4 (T5) It's the inferior border of the T4 vertebrum
How are intercostal spaces named? For the rib just superior.
Where verts correspond with the Xiphoid? T 8,9
What verts correspond with the suprasternal notch? T 2,3
What do the internal intercostals do? Depress the ribs, aid in FORCED exhalation
What do the external intercostals do? Elevate the ribs, aid in quiet and forced inhalation
What does the serratus posterior do? Cervical (superior) portion elevates ribs, thoracic (inferior) portion depresses ribs
Levatores Costarum does what? Elevate the ribs
What do innermost intercostals do? Depress and elevate
What is the origin of the Internal Thoracic Artery? Subclavian Artery
What are the two branches of the Internal Thoracic Artery? Epigastric, Musculophrenic
What is the sensory innervation of the visceral pleura? None
What is the sensory innervation of the parietal pleura? Intercostal and phrenic nerves
What is in the middle mediastinum The heart enclosed in the pericardium
What is in the anterior mediastinum? Loose connective tissue, fat, lymphatics, branches of the internal thoracic vessels
What is in the superior mediastinum? Thymus, great vessels, phrenic and vagus nerves, cardic plexus, trachea, left recurrent laryngeal nerve, esophagus, thoracic duct, prevertebral muscles
What is in the posterior mediastinum? thoracic aorta, thoracic duct, posterior mediastinal lymph nodes, azygos and hemiazygos veins, esophagus & esoph. plexus, thoracic sympathetic trunks, thoracic splanchnic nerve
How is the esophagus innervated? esophageal plexus of vagus nerves; also nerves from sympathtic trunks
What are the three impressions in the thoracic esophagus? Aortic arch, Left main bronchus, Diaphragm
From where do bronchial arteries arise? From aorta on left, and posterior intercostals on rt
What is the largest subdivision of a lobe? Bronchopulmonary Segment
Where does the superficial lymphatic plexus drain? Bronchopulmonary lymph nodes, then trachiobronciolymph nodes
Where does deep lynphatic plexus drain? pulmonary lymph nodes then bronchopulmonary lymph nodes
What plexi does the vagus nerve supply? Esophageal, cardiac, pulmonary, and pharyngeal
Where does the thoracic duct drain? Left braciocephalic vein
Where does the hemi-az arise? Left renal vein.
What level does the IVC open in the diaphragm? T8
What level does the esophagus open in the diaphragm? T10
What level does the aorta open in the diaphragm T12
What provides motor and sensory innervation to posterior musculature and skin? Dorsal Rami
What is the anterior blood supply to the breast? IMA (Internal Thoracic)
What is the posterior blood supply to the breast? Branches of thoracic aorta
What are the causes of pleural effusion? Increased hydrostatic pressure (CHF), increased capillary permeability (pneumonia), low albumin, atelectesis, lymphatic tumor
What fibers provide parasympathetic innervation to the lungs? Vagus Nerve
What fibers provide sympathetic innervation to the lungs? Sympathetic Trunks
What does parsympathetic innervation of the lungs do? Give motor to small muscles of bronchi, provides BRONCHOCONSTRICTION, vasodilation of PA, secretions
What does sympathetic innervation of the lungs do? Bronchodilation, vasoconstrictor, inhibits secretions
Created by: adhass