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Anatomy: Joints

Joints Section of Lab Practical

A ___ or ____ is the ___ where two or more bones ____ joint, articulation, site, meet
Joints can be classified based on the amount of ___ allowed by the joint. This is called a ___ classification movement, functional
Type of joint, degree of movement: Synarthroses Immovable
Type of joint, degree of movement: Amphiarthroses Slightly moveable
Type of joint, degree of movement: Diarthroses Freely moveable
Joints can also be classified based on the ___ binding bones together and whether or not a joint cavity is present. This is called ___ classification and has 3 types of joints: ___, ___, and ___ joints material, structural, fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial
___ are rigid, interlocking joints containing short connective tissue fibers. They find them mainly in the ___. sutures, skull
Slipping movements only Nonaxial joints
Movement in one plane Uniaxial joints
Movement in two planes Biaxial joints
Movement in or around all 3 planes Multiaxial joints
Angular movement that decreases the angle of the joint flexion
Angular movement towards the midline adduction
Angular movement: flexion+abduction+extension+adduction of a limb so as to describe a cone circumduction
Angular movement that increases angle of joint: extension
Angular Movement away from the midline: abduction
Angular movement: excessive extension beyond normal range of motion: hyperextension
There are __ types of synovial joints based on the shape of the articular surfaces of the joint-forming bones: 6
1/6: ___ or ___ joints have flat articular surfaces. They are ___ joints that allow for short ___ or ___ movements only Plane, sliding, nonaxial, gliding, sliding
2/6: ___ joints allow flexion and ___ only, which makes them ___ joints Hinge, extension, uniaxial
3/6: ___ joints are ___ joints too. They are created by the ___ end of one bone being surrounded by a sleeve or ring of another bone Pivot, uniaxial, round
If the articular surfaces of all joint-forming are oval, the joint is a _____ or ____ joint. It is a ___ joint that permits all ___ movements. condyloid, ellipsoidal, biaxial, angular
5/6: In ___ joints both articular surfaces have ___ and ___ areas, giving the ___ joint a ___ freedom of movement than a condyloid joint. saddle, concave, convex, biaxial, greater
6/6: The most freely moveable joints are ____ joints. They permit motion in 3 planes making them ____ joints. The only examples in the human body are the ___ and ____ joints. ball and socket, multiaxial, shoulder, hip
The ___ joint is the largest and most complex joint in the body, because it consists of __ joints that are surrounded by a single ____. It is a modified ___ joint that allows for ____, ___, and a small degree of ____ when the knee is ___. knee, 3, joint cavity, hinge, flexion, extension, rotation, flexed
The _____ joint is a ___ joint between the ____ surface on the posterior aspect of the ____ and the distal end of the ____. Femoropatellar, plane, articular, patella, femur
The ____ & _____ joints connect the lateral & medial ___ with the articular surfaces of the ____ of the ___. Because the ____ articular surfaces are shallow & small there are two ____ on either side that increase articular surface/absorb mechanical stress lateral, medial tibiofemoral, condyles, head, tibia, menisci
The joint ___ is thin, but reinforced by muscle tendons. There are atleast __ associated ___around the knee joint. Capsule, 12, bursae
The ____ tendon gives rise to 3 structures: The _____, which runs from the ___ of the ___ down to the ____ of the ___. The ___ and _____ blend into the capsule and insert into the ___ tibia. quadriceps, patellar ligament, apex, patella, tuberosity, tibia, lateral, medial patellar retinacula, proximal
The knee joint is the only joint with all 3 types of ligaments. The ___ or ___ ligament (LCL) is the outer extracapsular ligament, the ___ or ___ ligament (MCL) is the inner extracapsular ligament lateral, fibular collateral, medial, tibial collateral
Because the MCL has fibers that insert into the ___ meniscus, MCL injuries often involve damage to the ___ meniscus as well. medial, medial
The intracapsular ligaments are called ___ ligaments, because they cross eachother's path when looked at from the front. Although they are inside the capsule they are ___ cavity. cruciate, outside
The ____ ligament (ACL) stretches from the anterior _____ of the ___ to the ___ side of the ___ condyle of the ____. Its job is to prevent ___ sliding of the ___ against the ___ and ___ of the knee joint. anterior, intercondylar area, tibia, medial, lateral, femur, forward, tibia, femur, hyperextension
The ___ ligament is stronger, which is 1 reason there are fewer PCL injuries. It stretches from the posterior ____ of the ___ to the ___ side of the ___ condyle of the ____. Its job is to prevent ___ sliding of the ___ or ___ sliding of the ___ posterior cruciate, intercondylar area, tibia, lateral, medial, femur, backward, tibia, forward, femur
The ___ joint is also called the ___ joint because its a ___ joint formed by the ___ of the ___ and the ____ of the ____. Its a _____ joint with an enormous range of ___ shoulder, glenohumeral,ball and socket, head, humerus, glenoid fossa, scapula, multiaxial, motion
Shoulder great mobility also means less ____ and thus the shoulder joint is the second most easily dislocated joint behind the ____ joint. stability, temporomandibular joint
There are reinforcing ligaments, like the ___ ligament between ___ process of the ___ and the proximal ___, and the 3 ___ ligaments that strengthen the front of the capsule. Still, the major stabilizers are __ muscle tendons. coracohumeral ligament, coracoid, scapula, humerus, glenohumeral, 5
The tendon of the ___ head of the ___muscle runs from the ___ margin of the ___cavity over the head of the ___ and then through the ___ groove. The other 4 tendons form the ___ that encircles the joint. Theyre tendons of the ___, ___, ___, & ___ muscles. long, humerus, superior, glenoid, humerus, intertubercular, rotator cuff, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis
Elbow joint is formed by 3 bones: __, __, & __. Its a strong __ joint thats formed mainly by the ___ of the __ & the ___ of the ___. The radius doesnt contribute much to the joint, but its ___ rotates within the __ ligament during ___ & ___ of the forearm radius, ulna, humerus, hinge, trochlear notch, ulna, trochlea, humerus, head, annular, pronation, supination
Two collateral ligaments, the __ and ___ collateral ligament reinforce the capsule and restrict side to side movement. The joint is also stabilized by tendons, such as the ___ and ___ tendons that cross the joint. ulnar, radial, biceps, triceps
The ___ or ___ joint is the other multiaxial ball and socket joint. hip, coxal
Unlike the shoulder joint, which is unstable, the hip joint rarely dislocates due to its deep socket (___) thats enhanced by a circular ___ ring called ____ and the strength of the reinforcing ligaments (___, ___, ___ ligament). acetabulum, fibrocartilage, acetabular labrum, iliofemoral, pubofemoral, ischiofemoral
The 4th ligament, the ____, runs from the lower lip of the acetabulum to the center of the __ of the ___. Its not a strong ligament but carries an artery thats important for blood supply to the head ligamentum teres, acetabulum, head, femur
The only freely movable joint in the skull is the ____ or ___ joint. It connects the ___ with the inferior surface of the temporal bone. The joint caivty is subdivided by an ___ disk, which turns the TMJ into a joint with 2 types of movement temporomandibular, jaw, mandibular condyle, temporal, articular
Types of jaw movement: ____ and ___ of the mandible (___ joint) ____ i.e side to side grinding movement depression, elevation, hinge, lateral excursion
Created by: KAzetapi