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A&P Chapters 6-8

Content from Weeks 6-7 Lecture

Skeletal system composed of the bones of the skeleton, plus cartilages, ligaments, and connective tissues
Functions of the skeletal system support, storage of minerals and lipids, blood cell production, protection, leverage
Ways bones are classified shape, internal tissue organization, bone markings
Shapes of bones long, flat, sutural, irregular, short, sesamoid
Long bones long and thin; found in arms, legs, hands, feet, fingers, and toes
Flat bones thin with parallel surfaces; found in skull, sternum, ribs, scapulae
Sutural bones small, irregular bones found between the flat bones of the skull
Irregular bones have complex shapes; examples include the spinal vertebrae and pelvic bones
Short bones small and thick; examples include wrist and ankle bones
Sesamoid bones small and flat; develop inside tendons near joints of knees, hands, and feet
Types of bone markings depressions/grooves, projections, tunnels
Depressions/grooves in bone appear along bone surface
Projections in bone tend to occur where tendons and ligaments attach, and at articulations with other bones
Tunnels in bone where blood vessels and nerves enter the bone
Process any projection or bump
Ramus an extension of a bone making an angle with the rest of the structure
Trochanter a large, rough projection
Tuberosity a smaller, rough projection
Tubercle a small, rounded projection
Crest a prominent ridge
Line a low ridge
Spine a pointed or narrow process
Head the expanded articular surface of an epiphysis, separated from the shaft by a neck
Neck a narrow connection between the epiphysis and diaphysis
Condyle a smooth, rounded articular process
Fossa a shallow depression
Sulcus a narrow groove
Foramen a rounded passageway for blood vessels or nerves
Canal a duct or channel
Meatus a passageway through a bone
Fissure an elongated cleft or slit
Sinus a chamber within a bone, normally filled with air
Three parts of a long bone epiphysis, diaphysis, metaphysis
Diaphysis shaft of a long bone; has a central space surrounded by a heavy wall of bone
Medullary cavity the space in the middle of the diaphysis of a long bone that carries the marrow
Epiphysis the wide part at each end of a long bone; articulates with other bones; composed of mostly spongy bone covered with compact bone
Metaphysis where the diaphysis and epiphysis meet
Cancellous another word for spongy bone
Cortex compact bone that covers spongy bone
Structure of a flat bone a sandwich of spongy bone between two layers of compact bone
Diploe the layer of spongy bone in the center of cranial bones
Bone tissue dense, supportive connective tissue that contains specialized cells and produces a solid matrix of calcium salt deposits around collagen fibers
Characteristics of bone tissue matrix containing osteocytes in lacunae, canaliculi, and a covering periosteum
Matrix dense deposit of calcium salts in bone
Osteocytes bone cells
Lacuna a space in the osteon where an osteocyte lives
Canaliculi small canals in compact bone that form pathways for blood vessels, and exchange nutrients and wastes
Periosteum connective tissue membrane that covers the outer surface of the bone; consists of an outer fibrous and inner cellular layer; covers all bones except parts enclosed in joint capsules; contains perforating fibers, lymphatic vessels, sensory nerves
Matrix minerals calcium phosphate, calcium hydroxide, hydroxyapatite
Calcium phosphate Ca3(PO4)2; makes up two-thirds of bone matrix
Calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2; reactant in creating hydroxyapatite
Hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2; incorporates other calcium salts and ions
Matrix proteins collagen fibers that make up one-third of bone matrix
Four types of bone cells osteocytes, osteoblasts, osteoprogenitor cells, osteoclasts
Types of lamellae concentric, circumferential, interstitial
Characteristics of osteocytes make up just 2% of bone mass; mature bone cells; live in lacunae, between lamellae of matrix; connect by cytoplasmic extensions through canaliculi; do not divide
Functions of osteocytes maintain protein and mineral content of matrix, and help repair damaged bone
Osteoblast an immature bone cell
Characteristics of osteoblasts perform osteogenesis, producing osteoid; once surrounded by calcified bone, become osteocytes
Osteogenesis secretion of bone matrix compounds
Osteoid matrix that has been produced by osteoblasts, but not yet calcified to form bone
Osteoprogenitor cell mesenchymal bone cell
Characteristics of osteoprogenitor cells located in the endosteum; form osteoblasts by division; assist in fracture repair
Osteoclast bone cell that breaks down matrix
Characteristics of osteoclasts giant, multinucleate cells with ruffled edges that secrete acids and protein-digesting enzymes; perform osteolysis; derived from the same stem cells that produce macrophages; originate in the bone marrow cavity
Homeostasis of osseous tissue balance of bone building by osteoblasts and bone recycling by osteoclasts; if balance leans more toward osteolysis, bones become weak; weight-bearing exercise stimulates increased activity by osteoblasts
Structure of compact bone made up of many osteons, wrapped and held together by circumferential lamellae; covered by the periosteum
Wormian bones another word for sutural bones
Concentric lamellae layers of bone matrix surrounding the central canal, which contain osteocytes
Circumferential lamellae layers of bone matrix which wrap around the entire long bone, binding osteons together
Os coxa one of two hip bones that make up the pelvis
Three bones that form the fetal os coxa ilium, ischium, pubis
Innominal bone another word for os coxa
Proximal epiphysis the end of a long bone that is closer to the base of attachment
Distal epiphysis the end of a long bone that is further from the base of attachment
Epiphyseal plate one of two plates located in the transition zone of a long bone, which permits the bone to grow in length; becomes ossified at maturity
Growth/cartilage plate epiphyseal plate
Osteon the basic unit of compact bone; also called the Haversian system
Structure of osteons composed of a central canal which carries nerves and blood vessels, surrounded by layers of concentric lamellae, which contains perforating canals, lacunae, and canaliculi
Perforating canals canals that lie perpendicular to the central canal of each osteon, carrying blood vessels into the bone and marrow
-blast a cell that is juvenile, or young
-clast a cell that destroys, remodels, breaks down
Cycle of bone cell maturation mesenchymal cell, osteoprogenitor cell, osteoblast, osteocyte
Structure of spongy bone matrix contains trabeculae instead of osteons; trabeculae form an open network usually filled with red bone marrow
Lamella layer of bone matrix
Interstitial lamellae bone matrix that fills in the spaces between osteons
Red bone marrow contains blood vessels, produces erythrocytes and supplies nutrients to osteocytes
Yellow bone marrow found mostly in the center of long bones and in some short bones; stores fat
Volkmann's canals another word for perforating canals
Nutrient foramina holes in the diaphysis visible to the unaided eye, which carry large blood and lymphatic vessels into the matrix of the bone
Distribution of forces on the femur tension on lateral side of shaft, compression on medial side
Perforating fibers collagen fibers of the periosteum which connect with collagen fibers in bone and with fibers of joint capsules; attach tendons and ligaments
Functions of periosteum isolates bone from surrounding tissues; provides a route for circulatory and nervous supply; participates in bone growth and repair
Endosteum membrane that covers the inner surface of the bone
Characteristics of endosteum incomplete cellular layer that lines the medullary cavity, covers trabeculae of spongy bone, lines central canals, and contains osteoblasts, osteoprogenitor cells, and osteoclasts; active in bone growth and repair
Osteogenesis bone formation
Ossification the process of replacing other tissues with bone
Two types of ossification intramembranous, endochondral
Calcification the process of depositing calcium salts, which occurs during bone ossification and in other tissues
Endochondral ossification ossifies bones that begin as hyaline cartilage (most bones)
Six steps of endochondral ossification chondrocyte enlargement, conversion of perichondrium to osteoblasts, vascularization, remodeling, development of secondary ossification centers, filling of epiphyses with spongy bone
Appositional growth laying down circumferential lamellae that thickens and strengthens the long bones
Epiphyseal line remnant of the epiphyseal plate in mature bones, visible on X-ray
Intramembranous ossification occurs in the dermis; produces dermal bones, such as mandible and clavicle
Dermal ossification another word for intramembranous ossification
Chondrocyte enlargement chondrocytes near the center of the shaft enlarge; matrix is reduced to struts that begin to calcify; enlarged chondrocytes die, leaving large spaces within the matrix
Conversion of perichondrium to osteoblasts blood vessels grow around the edge of the cartilage; perichondrial cells convert to osteoblasts; shaft of cartilage becomes sheathed in the periosteal bone collar
Vascularization blood vessels penetrate the cartilage and invade central region; fibroblasts traveling with the blood vessels differentiate into osteoblasts at a primary ossification center and produce spongy bone; bone formation spreads along the shaft toward epiphyses
Primary ossification center during endochondral ossification, the point in the developing diaphysis where fibroblasts gather, differentiate into osteoblasts, and begin laying down spongy bone
Remodeling remodeling creates a medullary cavity in the center of the ossified cartilage; osseous tissue of the shaft thickens; cartilage near epiphyses replaced by shafts of bone; tissue increases in length/diameter
Development of secondary ossification centers capillaries and osteoblasts migrate into the epiphyses and begin ossification
Filling of epiphyses with spongy bone as the epiphyses ossify, layers of cartilage remain exposed to the joint cavities and at the metaphyses, forming epiphyseal cartilage
Epiphyseal cartilage during endochondral ossification, the layer of cartilage left at the metaphysis toward the end of the process
Three steps of intramembranous ossification aggregation of mesenchymal cells, spicule interconnection, creation of spongy bone and remodeling
Aggregation of mesenchymal cells during intramembranous ossification mesenchymal cells aggregate at an ossification center and begin to secrete bone matrix; as the matrix calcifies, cells differentiate into osteoblasts; bone forms spicules that spread into surrounding tissue
Spicule a small strut of bone growing outward from an ossification center
Spicule interconnection during intramembranous ossification as spicules interconnect, they trap blood vessels within the bone
Creation of spongy bone and remodeling during intramembranous ossification interconnected spicules mature into trabeculae; subsequent remodeling can create compact bone tissue; as growth slows, connective tissue around the bone organizes into periosteum, osteoblasts become less active and remain in the cellular periosteum
Three types of blood supply in mature bones nutrient artery and vein, metaphyseal vessels, periosteal vessels
Nutrient artery and vein single pair of large blood vessels that enter the diaphysis through the nutrient foramen; femur has more than one pair
Metaphyseal vessels supply the epiphyseal cartilage, where bone growth occurs
Periosteal vessels provide blood to superficial osteons and secondary ossification centers
Remodeling the continual process by which the adult skeleton maintains itself; replaces mineral reserves, recycles and renews bone matrix, and involves osteocytes, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts
Rate of osseous tissue turnover affects bone strength; if deposition is greater than removal, bones get stronger, and if removal is greater than deposition, bones get weaker
Effect of exercise on bone mineral recycling allows bones to adapt to stress; heavily stressed bones become thicker, stronger
Bone degeneration occurs quickly; up to one-third of bone mass can be lost during a few weeks of inactivity
Minerals required for normal bone growth calcium, phosphate salts, magnesium, fluoride, iron, manganese
Periosteal bone collar the thin plate of compact bone that forms within the periosteum as it calcifies
Vitamins required for normal bone growth A, B12, C, D3, K
Hormones involved in regulation of bone growth and maintenance calcitriol, growth hormone, thyroxine, sex hormones, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin
Role of vitamin A in bone growth stimulates osteoblast activity
Role of vitamin D3 in bone growth required to synthesize calcitriol
Role of vitamin C in bone growth collagen synthesis, stimulation of osteoblast differentiation
Role of vitamins B12 and K in bone growth help synthesize bone proteins
Role of calcitriol in bone growth helps absorb calcium and phosphorus from digestive tract
Role of growth hormone and thyroxine in bone growth stimulate bone growth
Role of sex hormones in bone growth stimulate osteoblast activity
Role of calcitonin and parathyroid hormone in bone growth regulate calcium and phosphate levels in the body
Calcitriol synthesized in kidneys; hormone involved in regulating absorption of calcium and phosphorus from digestive tract
Calcitonin secreted by parafollicular cells in thyroid; decreases calcium ion levels by inhibiting osteoclast activity and increasing calcium excretion at the kidneys
Parathyroid hormone produced by parathyroid glands in the neck; increases calcium ion levels by stimulating osteoclasts, increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, and decreasing calcium secretion at kidneys
Composition of bone 33% organic compounds: 31% collagen, 2% bone cells; 67% inorganic compounds: 39% calcium, 17% phosphate, 9.8% carbonate, 0.7% sodium, 0.5% magnesium, 0.2% potassium
Bone fracture crack or break in bone caused by physical stress
Four steps of bone fracture repair bleeding, callus formation, spongy bone growth, bone remodeling
Bleeding in bone fracture repair produces the fracture hematoma, establishes a fibrous network, and kills bone cells in area
Fracture hematoma blood clot formed during bone fracture
Callus formation in bone fracture repair created by cells of the endosteum (internal callus) and periosteum (external callus) that divide and migrate into the fracture zone; pad of cartilage and bone that surrounds the break
Spongy bone growth in bone fracture repair osteoblasts replace the central cartilage of the external callus with spongy bone
Bone remodeling in bone fracture repair takes up to a year; reduces the bone calluses around the fracture and replaces spongy bone with compact bone
Nine major types of bone fractures Pott, comminuted, transverse, spiral, displaced, colles, greenstick, epiphyseal, compression
Pott fracture break at the ankle which involves both the tibia and fibula
Comminuted fracture bone shattered into many fragments
Transverse fracture break of a bone shaft across its long axis
Spiral fracture produced by twisting stresses that spread along the length of the bone
Displaced fracture a fracture that produces an abnormal bone arrangement
Colles fracture a break in the distal portion of the ulna, usually caused by cushioning a fall
Greenstick fracture incomplete break of the bone; mostly occurs in young children
Epiphyseal fracture occurs where the bone matrix is in the process of calcifying; unless treated carefully, can permanently stop bone growth
Compression fracture occurs in vertebrae exposed to extreme stresses
Osteopenia thinning and weakening of the bones with age; begins between 30 and 40 in women; women lose 8% of bone mass per decade, men lose 3%
Bones most affected by osteopenia vertebrae, jaws, epiphyses of long bones
Osteoporosis severe bone loss that affects normal function; over age 45, occurs in 29% of women and 18% of men
Hormones and bone loss Sex hormones help maintain bone mass; bone loss in women accelerates after menopause
Cancer and bone loss cancerous tissues release osteoclast-activating factor, which stimulates osteoclasts and produces severe osteoporosis
Types of anatomical structures of bones articulations, landmarks, foramina
Articulation a place on a bone that contacts other bones
Landmark a marking on a bone that shows sites of muscle and ligament attachment
Axial skeleton forms the longitudinal axis of the body; contains 80 bones; composed of the skull, vertebral column, and thoracic cage
Number of bones in the skull 8 cranial, 14 facial
Bones associated with the skull 6 auditory ossicles, hyoid bone
Facial bones 2 nasal, 2 lacrimal, 2 zygomatic, 2 inferior nasal conchae, vomer, 2 maxillary, 2 palatine, mandible
Functions of the axial skeleton supports and protects organs in body cavities; attaches to muscles of head, neck, trunk, appendicular skeleton, and respiratory muscles
Functions of the cranial bones enclose the cranial cavity, supporting and protecting the brain, fluids, blood vessels, nerves, and membrane
Function of superficial facial bones muscle attachment
Cerebrospinal fluid fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord, contained by the cranial cavity and vertebral column
Function of deep facial bones separate oral and nasal cavities, form nasal septum
Cranial cavity space created by the cranial bones which houses the brain
Superficial facial bones nasal, lacrimal, zygomatic, maxillary, mandible
Deep facial bones palatine, inferior nasal conchae, vomer
Characteristics of cranial sinuses lined with mucous membranes, protect the entrances of the respiratory system
Four major sutures of the skull lambdoid, coronal, sagittal, squamous
Lambdoid suture separates the occipital from the parietal bones; may contain Wormian bones
Coronal suture attaches the frontal bone to the parietal bones
Calvaria the skullcap; consists of the superior portions of the frontal, parietal, and occipital bones
Sagittal suture between the parietal bones; runs from the lambdoid suture to the coronal suture
Squamous sutures form boundaries between the parietal and temporal bones
Functions of the occipital bone forms the posterior and inferior surfaces of the cranium
Articulations of the occipital bone parietal, temporal, sphenoid, atlas
Marks of the occipital bone external occipital protuberance, external occipital crest, occipital condyles, inferior and superior nuchal lines
External occipital protuberance raised area on occipital bone, posterior to the occipital crest
External occipital crest raised area on occipital bone posterior to the foramen magnum
Occipital condyles processes that allow the occipital bone to articulate with the atlas
Inferior and superior nuchal lines lines running perpendicular to the occipital protuberance and crest, which allow attachment of muscles and ligaments
Foramina of the occipital bone foramen magnum, jugular foramen, hypoglossal canals
Foramen magnum the large opening in the occipital bone through which the spinal cord passes
Jugular foramen opening in the occipital bone that allows the passage of the jugular vein
Hypoglossal canals openings on the occipital bone anterior to the foramen magnum, through which the hypoglossal nerves pass
Functions of parietal bones forms part of the superior and lateral surfaces of the cranium
Articulations of the parietal bones the other parietal bone, occipital, temporal, frontal, sphenoid
Marks of the parietal bones superior and inferior temporal lines, grooves for cranial blood vessels
Superior and inferior temporal lines raised lines on the parietal bones where the temporalis muscle attaches
Functions of the frontal bone forms the anterior cranium and upper eye sockets; contains frontal sinuses
Articulations of the frontal bone parietal, zygomatic, lacrimal, nasal, ethmoid, sphenoid, maxilla, metopic suture
Metopic suture the suture between the left and right portions of the frontal bone
Marks of the frontal bone frontal squama, supra-orbital margin, lacrimal fossa, frontal sinuses
Frontal squama the anterior portion of the frontal bone that forms the forehead
Supra-orbital margin the arches of the upper eye sockets in the frontal bone
Lacrimal fossa opening inside the eye socket on the frontal bone that allows passage of the tear ducts
Frontal sinuses air pockets in the frontal bone lined with mucous membranes
Foramen of the frontal bone supra-orbital foramen
Supra-orbital foramen opening on the frontal bone that allows passage of blood vessels that supply the eyebrows, eyelids, and frontal sinuses
Supra-orbital notch an incomplete supra-orbital foramen
Functions of the temporal bones part of lateral wall of cranium and zygomatic arches; articulate with mandible; surround and protect inner ears; attach muscles of jaws and head
Articulations of the temporal bones zygomatic, sphenoid, parietal, occipital, mandible
Marks of the temporal bones squamous part, mandibular fossa, zygomatic process, mastoid process
Squamous part of the temporal bone borders the squamous suture
Mandibular fossa articulates with the mandible
Zygomatic process inferior to the squamous portion; articulates with the temporal process of the zygomatic bone; forms the zygomatic arch
Zygomatic arch cheekbone
Mastoid process process that attaches to muscles, and contains mastoid air cells connected to the middle ear
Marks of the temporal bones styloid process, petrous part, auditory ossicles
Styloid process of the temporal bone process inferior to the external acoustic meatus, and between the mastoid and zygomatic processes; attaches tendons and ligaments of the hyoid, tongue, and pharynx
Petrous part of the temporal bone medial portion of the temporal bone that encloses the inner ear
Auditory ossicles tiny bones in the tympanic cavity that transfer sound from the eardrum to the inner ear
Foramina of the temporal bones carotid canal, foramen lacerum, external acoustic meatus, stylomastoid foramen, internal acoustic meatus
Carotid canal internal passage of the carotid artery in the temporal bone, superior to the foramen lacerum
Foramen lacerum irregularly shaped opening medial to the petrous part of the temporal bone, filled with hyaline cartilage; carries small arteries
External acoustic meatus large opening in the temporal bone that ends at the tympanic membrane
Stylomastoid foramen opening in the temporal bone between the styloid and mastoid processes that carries a facial nerve
Internal acoustic meatus opening on the medial surface of the temporal bone that carries blood vessels and nerves of the inner ear, as well as a facial nerve
Function of the sphenoid forms part of the floor of the cranium; unites cranial and facial bones; strengthens sides of the skull; contains sphenoidal sinuses
Articulations of the sphenoid frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, ethmoid bones; zygomatic, palatine, maxillary bones, and vomer
Marks of the sphenoid sphenoid body, sella turcica, hypophyseal fossa, sphenoidal sinuses, greater and lesser wings, pterygoid processes
Sphenoid body at the central axis of the sphenoid
Sella turcica saddle-shaped enclosure on the superior portion of the sphenoid body
Hypophyseal fossa depression within the sella turcica where the pituitary gland sits
Sphenoidal sinuses air pockets that lie on either side of the sphenoidal body, inferior to the sella turcica
Lesser wings of the sphenoid project anteriorly to the sella turcica
Greater wings of the sphenoid form part of the cranial floor and the posterior wall of the orbit; contain the sphenoidal spines
Sphenoidal spine projection from the greater wings of the sphenoid
Pterygoid processes projections on the sphenoid bone that forms the pterygoid plates, which serve as attachments for the muscles of the lower jaw and soft palate
Foramina of the sphenoid optic canals, superior orbital fissure, foramen rotundum, foramen ovale, foramen spinosum
Optic canals openings in the sphenoid bone that carry the optic nerves to the brain
Superior orbital fissure carries blood vessels and nerves for the orbit
Foramen rotundum openings on the body of the sphenoid that carry blood vessels and nerves to the face
Foramen ovale a large, oval opening on the greater wing of the sphenoid that carries blood vessels and nerves to the face
Foramen spinosum an opening posterior to the foramen ovale on the sphenoid that carries blood vessels and nerves to the jaws
Functions of the ethmoid bone forms the anteromedial floor of the cranium and the roof of the nasal cavity; forms part of the nasal septum and medial orbital wall; contains the ethmoidal air cells
Ethmoidal air cells a network of sinuses in the ethmoid bone
Articulations of the ethmoid frontal and sphenoid bones; nasal and lacrimal bones, inferior nasal conchae, vomer, and palatine and maxillary bones
Three parts of the ethmoid cribriform plate, lateral masses, perpendicular plate
Cribriform plate a plate of bone within the ethmoid that forms part of the cranial floor and the roof of the nasal cavity, and contains the crista galli
Lateral masses of the ethmoid contains the ethmoidal labyrinth, and superior and medial nasal conchae
Ethmoidal labyrinth another name for the ethmoidal air cells
Perpendicular plate of the ethmoid vertical portion of the ethmoid that forms part of the nasal septum
Olfactory foramina foramina of the ethmoid which occur in the cribriform plate, and carry the olfactory nerves
Functions of the maxillae support upper teeth; form upper jaw, hard palate, inferior orbital rim, lateral margins of external nares; contain maxillary sinuses
External nares Nostrils
Articulations of the maxillae frontal, ethmoid, one another, all other facial bones except the mandible
Marks of the maxillae orbital rim, anterior nasal spine, alveolar processes, palatine processes, maxillary sinuses, nasolacrimal canal
Orbital rim of the maxillae lower rim of the orbit
Anterior nasal spine attaches to the cartilaginous anterior nasal septum
Alveolar processes borders the mouth and supports the teeth
Palatine processes form the hard palate (roof of the mouth)
Maxillary sinuses air pockets within the maxillae
Nasolacrimal canal canal in the maxillae that connects the orbit and nasal cavity, and protects the lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal ducts
Foramina of the maxillae infra-orbital foramen, inferior orbital fissure
Infra-orbital foramen passage for a sensory nerve to the brain (also passes through the foramen rotundum of the sphenoid)
Inferior orbital fissure allows passage of cranial nerves of blood vessels
Functions of the palatine bones form the posterior portion of the hard palate; contribute to the floors of the orbits
Articulations of the palatine bones other palatine bone, maxillae, sphenoid, ethmoid, inferior nasal conchae, vomer
Divisions of the palatine bones horizontal plate, perpendicular plate
Horizonal plate of the palatine bones posterior part of the hard palate
Perpendicular plate of the palatine bones from the horizontal plate to the orbital process of the orbit floor
Foramina of the palatine bones many in the lateral portion of the horizontal plate for small blood vessels and nerves of the roof of the mouth
Functions of the nasal bones support the bridge of the nose, connect to cartilages of the distal part of the nose
Articulations of the nasal bones other nasal bone, ethmoid, frontal, maxillae
Functions of the vomer forms inferior portion of the bony nasal septum
Articulations of the vomer sphenoid, ethmoid, palatine, maxillae, cartilaginous nasal septum
Functions of the inferior nasal conchae create air turbulence in the nasal cavity, increase epithelial surface area, warm and humidify inhaled air
Articulations of the inferior nasal conchae ethmoid, maxillae, palatine, lacrimal
Functions of the zygomatic bones contribute to the rim and lateral wall of the orbit, form part of the zygomatic arch
Articulations of the zygomatic bones sphenoid, frontal, temporal, maxillae
Mark of the zygomatic bones temporal process
Temporal process process on the zygomatic bone that contacts the zygomatic process of the temporal bone
Foramen of the zygomatic bones zygomaticofacial foramen
Zygomaticofacial foramen allows passage of the sensory nerves of the cheeks
Functions of the lacrimal bones form part of the medial wall of the orbit
Articulations of the lacrimal bones frontal, maxillae, ethmoid
Marks of the lacrimal bones lacrimal sulcus
Lacrimal sulcus location of the lacrimal sac; leads to the nasolacrimal canal
Functions of the mandible forms the lower jaw
Articulations of the mandible mandibular fossae of the temporal bones
Marks of the mandible body, alveolar processes, mental protuberance, medial depression, mylohyoid line, ramus, condylar process, coronoid process, mandibular notch
Mandibular body horizontal portion of the mandible
Mandibular alveolar processes support the lower teeth
Mental protuberance attaches facial muscles on the mandible
Medial depression of the mandible supports the submandibular salivary gland
Mylohyoid line raised ridge on the mandible for insertion of the mylohyoid muscle, which forms the floor of the mouth
Ramus of the mandible ascends from the mandibular angle on either side
Condylar processes of the mandible articulate with the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone at the temporomandibular joint
Coronoid processes of the mandible serves as insertion point for temporalis muscle
Mandibular notch separates condylar and coronoid processes
Foramina of the mandible mental, mandibular
Mental foramina of the mandible allow passage of the sensory nerves of the lips and chin
Mandibular foramina form entrance to the mandibular canal, carry blood vessels and nerves of the lower teeth
Functions of the hyoid bone supports the larynx, attaches muscles of the larynx, pharynx, and tongue
Articulations of the hyoid bone none; connected by ligaments via the lesser horns to the styloid processes of the temporal bones
Marks of the hyoid bone body, greater cornua, lesser cornua
Body of the hyoid bone attaches muscles of the larynx, tongue, and pharynx
Greater cornua of the hyoid bone greater horns; support larynx; attach muscles of the tongue
Lesser cornua of the hyoid bone lesser horns; attach stylohyoid ligaments, support hyoid and larynx
Orbital complex forms the orbits; composed of the frontal, maxillary, lacrimal, ethmoid, sphenoid, and palatine bones
Paranasal sinuses air-filled chambers connected to the nasal cavities; lighten the skull bones, and provide mucous epithelium to flush the nasal cavities
Properties of the infant skull grows rapidly, is large compared to the body, has many ossification centers, and is incompletely fused at birth; frontal bone is separated in two, occipital separated into four, several sphenoidal, temporal elements
Fontanelles areas of fibrous connective tissue that cover unfused sutures in the infant skull; allow the skull to flex during birth, and allows growth of the developing brain after birth
Four main fontanelles of the infant skull anterior, occipital, sphenoidal, mastoid
Anterior fontanelle connects the frontal, sagittal, and coronal sutures
Occipital fontanelle connects the lambdoid and sagittal sutures
Sphenoidal fontanelle connects the squamous and coronal sutures
Mastoid fontanelle connects the squamous and lambdoid sutures
Number of bones in the vertebral column protects the spinal cord, supports the head and body
Number of bones in the vertebral column 26
Types of vertebrae cervical, thoracic, lumbar
Number of cervical vertebrae 7
Number of thoracic vertebrae 12
Number of lumbar vertebrae 5
Two additional bones of the vertebral column sacrum, coccyx
Four curvatures of the vertebral column cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral
Primary curves of the vertebral column thoracic and sacral; also called accommodation curves; present during fetal development, accommodate internal organs
Secondary curves of the vertebral column cervical and lumbar; also called compensation curves; appear after birth, shift body weight for upright posture
Accommodation curves of the vertebral column thoracic and sacral
Compensation curves of the vertebral column cervical and lumbar
Structure of a vertebra body (centrum), arch, articular process
Vertebral body flat, disc-like portion of the vertebra; transfers weight along the spine
Vertebral arch forms the posterior margin of the vertebral foramen; composed of the pedicles, laminae, spinous process, and transverse process
Articular processes of the vertebrae lateral projections between laminae and pedicles
Pedicle wall of the vertebral arch
Lamina part of the roof of the vertebral arch
Spinous process projection where vertebral laminae fuse
Transverse process projection where the laminae join the pedicles
Foramina of the vertebrae intervertebral, vertebral canal
Intervertebral foramen gap between pedicles of adjacent vertebrae; carries nerve connections to spinal cord
Vertebral canal formed by vertebral foramina; encloses the spinal cord
Intervertebral discs pads of fibrous cartilage that separate the vertebral bodies and absorb shock
Vertebral regions method to label vertebrae, by dividing them into regions and assigning them numbers; cervical (C), thoracic (T), lumbar (L), sacral (S), and coccygeal (Co)
Properties of cervical vertebrae C1 to C7; small body, large vertebral foramen, concave superior surface, slopes posterior to anterior, bifid spinous processes; C1 vertebra has no spinous process, C2 has odontoid process
Transverse foramina encircled by fused transverse and costal processes to protect arteries and veins
C1 vertebra atlas vertebra
Atlas vertebra articulates with occipital condyles of the skull, has no body or spinous process, has a large, round foramen with anterior and posterior arches
C2 vertebra axis vertebra
Axis vertebra supports the atlas, has heavy spinous processes, attaches muscles of the head and neck; body fuses with the body of the atlas to form the dens
C7 vertebra vertebra prominens
Vertebra prominens transitions to thoracic vertebrae, has a long spinous process with a broad tubercle, has large transverse processes, attaches ligamentum nuchae
Ligamentum nuchae attaches C7 vertebra to skull
Properties of thoracic vertebrae heart-shaped bodies; larger bodies and smaller vertebral foramen than cervical vertebrae; long, slender spinous processes; dorsolateral surfaces of body have costal facets that articulate with heads of the ribs; T10-T12 transition to lumbar vertebrae
Transverse costal facets located on T1-T10
Rib articulations on thoracic vertebrae two each on T1-T8, one each on T9-T11
Properties of lumbar vertebrae largest vertebrae; oval-shaped bodies; thicker bodies than T1-T12; no costal or transverse costal facets; triangular vertebral foramen, superior articular processes that face up and in; inferior articular processes that face down and out
Transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae slender, project dorsolaterally
Spinous processes of lumbar vertebrae short and heavy, attach lower back muscles
Properties of the sacrum more curved in males than females; protects reproductive, urinary, and digestive organs; attaches axial skeleton to pelvic girdle, broad muscles that move the thigh; consists of five vertebrae that fuse between puberty and 25-30 years
Marks and foramina of the sacrum sacral canal, sacral cornua, sacral hiatus, medial sacral crest, lateral sacral crest, auricular surface, sacral tuberosity
Sacral canal replaces the vertebral canal
Sacral cornua horn-shaped, formed by laminae of the fifth sacral vertebra which do not meet at midline
Sacral hiatus opening at the inferior end of the sacral canal formed by the ridges of the sacral cornua; covered by connective tissue
Median sacral crest fused spinous processes with four pairs of sacral foramina open to either side
Lateral sacral crest fused transverse processes that attach to muscles of lower back and hip
Auricular surface thick, flattened area of the sacrum that articulates with the pelvic girdle at the sacroiliac joint
Sacral tuberosity rough area on the sacrum that attaches ligaments of the sacroiliac joint
Four regions of the sacrum base, ala, sacral promontory, apex
Base of the sacrum broad superior surface of the sacrum
Ala of the sacrum wings at either side of the base of the sacrum that attach muscles
Sacral promontory found at the center of the base of the sacrum
Apex of the sacrum narrow inferior portion of the sacrum that articulates with the coccyx
Properties of the coccyx attaches ligaments and a constricting muscle of the anus; consists of three to five fused coccygeal vertebrae
Properties of the first two coccygeal vertebrae have transverse processes, have unfused vertebral arches
Coccygeal cornua formed by laminae of the first coccygeal vertebra
Thoracic cage supports the thoracic cavity; consists of thoracic vertebrae, ribs, and sternum
Functions of the thoracic cage protects organs of the thoracic cavity (heart, lungs, thymus); attaches muscles for respiration, and of vertebral column, pectoral girdle, and upper limbs
Functions of ribs mobile, can absorb shocks, affect width and depth of thoracic cavity, changing its volume and allowing respiration
Properties of costae 12 pairs of long, curved, flat bones extending from the thoracic vertebrae
Two types of costae true ribs, false ribs
Costae ribs
True ribs pairs 1-7; attached to sternum by costal cartilage
Vertebrosternal ribs true ribs, pairs 1-7
False ribs pairs 8-12; do not attach directly to the sternum; ribs 8-10 fuse together and merge with cartilage before reaching the sternum, ribs 11-12 connect only to the vertebrae and back muscles
Vertebrochondral ribs false ribs pairs 8-10 that fuse and merge with cartilage before reaching the sternum
Floating/vertebral ribs false ribs pairs 11 and 12 that connect only to the vertebrae and back muscles
Structure of a rib head/capitulum, neck, tubercle, tubercular body
Head/capitulum of a rib at the vertebral end of the rib, has superior and inferior articular facets
Neck of a rib short area between the head and tubercle
Tubercle of a rib small dorsal elevation that has an auricular facet that contacts the facet of its thoracic vertebra (T1-T10 only)
Tubercular body of a rib shaft of the rib; attaches muscles of the pectoral girdle and trunk; attaches to the intercostal muscles that move the ribs
Properties of the sternum flat bone in the midline of the thoracic wall
Three parts of the sternum manubrium, gladiolus, xiphoid process
Manubrium of the sternum superior portion of the sternum; broad, triangular shape that articulates with clavicles and cartilages of first rib pair; contains a jugular notch
Jugular notch of the sternal manubrium shallow indentation between clavicular articulations that can be palpated at the "hollow" of the neck
Gladiolus of the sternum also known as the sternal body; tongue shaped, attached to manubrium, attaches to costal cartilages of ribs 2-7
Xiphoid process smallest part of the sternum; attaches to sternal body, diaphragm, and rectus abdominis muscles
Development of the sternum sternal body contains four parts that complete fusion around age 25, leaving transverse lines; xiphoid process is the last to fuse, and can easily be broken away
Appendicular skeleton contains 126 bones; allows us to move and manipulate objects; includes all bones besides axial skeleton
Pectoral girdle connects arms to body, positions shoulders, and provides a base for arm movement; consists of two clavicles and two scapulae; connects with the axial skeleton at the manubrium
Clavicles long, S-shaped bones that originate at the manubrium and articulate with the scapulae
Marks of the clavicle acromial end, sternal end, conoid tubercle, costal tuberosity, acromial facet, sternal facet
Acromial end of the clavicle end that articulates with the scapula; contact point is the acromial facet
Conoid tubercle of the clavicle rough projection at the posterior inferior side of the clavicle; contacts the coracoid process of the scapula and attaches the conoid ligament
Costal tuberosity broad rough surface on the medial part of the clavicle, attaches the costoclavicular ligament
Sternal end of the clavicle end that articulates with the manubrium; contains the sternal facet
Scapulae shoulder blades; broad, flat triangles that articulate with the arm and collarbone
Structures of the scapula subscapular fossa; superior, medial, and lateral borders; superior, inferior, and lateral angles; scapular head; glenoid cavity; coracoid process; acromion; scapular spine; supraspinous and infraspinous fossae
Subscapular fossa anterior surface of the scapula
Borders of the scapula superior, medial, lateral
Angles of the scapula superior, inferior, lateral
Vertebral border of the scapula medial border of the scapula
Axillary border of the scapula lateral border of the scapula
Scapular head holds glenoid cavity which articulates with humerus to form shoulder joint
Created by: ekolmus



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