Busy. Please wait.

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

Username is available taken
show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove ads
Don't know
remaining cards
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards

Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Chronic Meningitis

Chronic meningitis is defined as ? * meningeal inflammation that persists for more than 4 weeks
At most risk = ? * immunocompromised patients (T-Cell deficit is key to this )
Clues = ? * travel to certain areas, HIV positive, preparing for a transplant to reduce his immune system, etc.
How to Dx = ? * CSF analysis (atlest 10 - 20 mL to catch anything) , Gram Staining
Tuberculous Meningitis basics = ? * Rod organisms that need to use Acid fast stain to get a positive (Ziehl Neelsen) ( Stain with carbol fuchsin ).... * VERY SLOW incubation/grower
TB epidemiology = ? * 1/3 of pop. is effected and usu 1/2 are of foreign ppl
How TB survives = ? * inhaled and ingested by Macros in the lungs, where it avoids destruction... * Granulomas = from Th cells walling off TB
TB CxSx = ? * chronic cough, fatigue, weight loss, high temp., SOB w/chest pain, see Delayed type hypersensitivity reaction
Tuberculous Meningitis basics = ? * From TB infection ... * rupture in subarachnoid space causing meningitis... * Cerebral vasculitis causes infarction or hemorrhage... * can see hydrocephalus and CN 6 impingement... * Tuberculomas may develop in advanced cases
Early and Late signs = ? * Early = stiff neck, h/a, n/v.... * Late = alterations in consciousness, coma, seizures, Nerve issues
Lab Dx = ? * Acid Fast CSF stain (need 10-20 ml) , PCR , or Imaging
Neurosyphilis basics = ? * Most chronic, insideous meningeal inflammatory process known... * from trp. pallidum (2ndary Syphilis) ... * see an increase due to AIDs
Neurosyphilis, and how we get it today ? * usu from HIV ppl, male to male sex
Early Neurosyphilis = ? * CSF is invaded (+ VDRL) , Invasion of the meninges (stiff neck), and Meningovascular syphilis (arteritis of vessels in subarach. space)
Late Neurosyphilis = ? * Tabes dorsalis – charaterized by demyelination of the nerves in dorsal columns of spinal cord... * loss of coordination and paralysis
Neurosyphilis Dx = ? * Cx suspicion of HIV pt.... * CSF VDRL and FTA + test
TmT = ? * Pen. G
Lyme Neurologic Disease = ? * Caused by spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, by lxodes ticks... * see multiple erythema migrans... * high prev. in NorthEast
Tmt = ? * Doxycycline or Ceftriaxone
Post Lyme Disease Syndrome = ? * Persistent musculoskeletal pain, cognitive problems, and fatigue.... * Weird thing is that pts. DO NOT have a chronic Bor. Burg. infection
Viral Causes of Meningitis/Encephalitis = ? * HIV, CMV, EBV, HSV I and II (Mollaret’s syndrome – recurrent meningitis), and VZV
Dx of Viral Meningitis = ? * Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) has been especially useful
(Fungal Meningitis) Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis = ? * Generally an infection of immunocompromised but can cause clinical disease in healthy people... * Cryptococcus neoformans... * get due to inhalation
Cryptococcus Epidemiology = ? * C. neoformans associated with bird droppings (pigeons and chickens) ... * C. gatti associated with eucalyptus trees.... * See highly in Immunocomp. pts... * All usu cause CNS issues
Virulence of Cryptococcus = ? * negatively charged capsule that causes resistance to chemotaxis and phagocytosis... * Melanin protects organism from oxidative killing by macrophages
CxSx = ? * h/a, lethargy, personality change, mem. loss
Lab Diagnosis for Crypto. = ? * India ink staining or Cryptococcal antigen test
Crypto. Tmt = ? * Amphotericin B (plus flucytosine)
Coccidioidal Meningitis basics = ? * Coccidioides immitis .... * See in Southwestern US.... *get from inhalation, and from spores (rain may assist in this)
How we actually get Coccidioidal Meningitis ? * we inhale an arthrospore, a sphereule develops, and releases endospores
Coccidioidal CxSx = ? * Persistence of headache -- Progressive worsening of headache -- Unusual severity of the headache -- Associated nausea and vomiting -- Blurring of vision -- Changes in mental status
Coccidioidal Lab Dx = ? * Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or CT or MRI – hydrocephalus most common finding
Tmt = ? * Fluconazole - or - Itraconazole - or - Amphotericin B (intrathecal)
Histoplasmosis basics = ? * By Histoplasma capsulata... * Thermal dimorphic = Body temp (37oC) a yeast or at Room temp (25oC) mycelial with macroconidia.... * See Mississippi, Ohio, and St. Lawrence River valleys ... * in bird or bat poop... * usu asymptomatic
Histo. Brain imaging = ? * see little white dots all over
Histo. Tmt = ? * Amphotericin B or Fluconazole
The 2 Chronic Parasitic CNS Infections = ? * Toxoplasma gondii and Taenia solium
Toxoplasmosis basics = ? * get from Toxoplasma gondii (Cats or from Meats in Greece/S.Africa) .... * Nothing is immunocompetent ppl.... * Severe infections in immunocompetent (AIDS), pregnant females (congenital infections)
How we get Toxo. = ? * Cat = oocyst….... * Pig/Cattle = sporulated oocyst ... * go to major organs = eye, heart, brain
Toxo. Life Cycle = ? * They develop into tachyzoites..... * Eventually tachyzoites localize to muscle tissues and the CNS where they convert to tissue cysts, or bradyzoites
Diagnosis of Toxoplasma encephalitis = ? * CSF or Imaging with MRI or CT for ring-enhancing lesions
Toxo. TmT = ? * Pyrimethamine + sulfadiazine + Leucovorin ..... * Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole ..... * Pyrimethamine + azithromycin
Cysticercosis basics = ? * Neurocysticercosis is most severe form of disease .... * From the Pork tapeworm Taneia Solium (has a scolex and 4 hooks that attach to the intestines) .... * Major cause of adult onset seizures in most low-income countries
Cysticercosis Epidemiology = ? * Leading cause of epilepsy worldwide ..... * endemic in Central and South America and is 100% preventable disease
Patho. = ? * Evade destruction and develop host immune tolerance ..... * Metacestodes elaborate taeniaestatin (a serine proteinase inhibitor), paramyosin, sulfated polysaccharides, and secretory proteases, that inhibit inflammatory responses
CxSx = ? * Depend upon where cysts are localized in brain ..... * Cysticerci that lodge in the subarachnoid space lead to chronic arachoiditis which may result in hydrocephalus, meningitis, stroke, and vasculitis
Dx and TmT = ? * Based on clinical presentation and Imaging with CT or MRI for cystic or calcified lesions ...... * TmT = Antiepileptics – phenytoin or carbamazepine or Antiparasitics – albendazole is preferred over praziquantel
Created by: thamrick800