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A&P Cardio

Test 4

The thickest layer of the heart wall and the layer that is responsible for the muscle contraction is the? Myocardium/cardiac muscle
The myocardium is formed of loosely fitting double-sac that is composed of an inner layer and outer layer called? Partial; Visceral
What is the epicardium? Outer most layer of the heart muscle which contains blood vessels that nourish the heart; visceral pericardium
The space that is in between the parietal and visceral pericardia is called? Pericardial cavity
Name the 2 artioventricular (AV) valves Bicuspid & Tricuspid valves
Name the 2 semilunar (SL) valves Pulmonary & Aortic valves
Endocardium def Inner layer of the heart muscle that lines chambers of heart; continuous w/ internal lining of blood vessels attached to the heart
Where are the AV valved located and its function? Between the atrium & ventride; Allows blood flow from atria to ventricle; prevents backflow into atria
Where are the SL valve located and its function? Base of large arteries, pulmonary artery/trunk. Base of Aortia; Carries blood away from ventricles to main arteries & prevents backflow into ventricles
The ONE WAY direction of the flood of blood is accomplished by heart valves which are located BOTH at the entrance and near the exit of the ventricles. T OR F? True - valves at both ends of ventricle
Each AV valve allows blood to flow from ATRIUM into VENTRICLE but will prevent the backflow of blood into the atria when the ventricles contract. T or F? True
The __________ valve prevents the backflow of blood from the right ventricle into the right atrium Tricuspid
The __________ valve allows blood going into the lungs to flow out of the right ventricle and into the pulmonary truck, and at the same time, it will prevent blood from flowing back into the right ventricle. Pulmonary SL
The __________ valve allows blood to flow out of the left ventricle up into the aorta and at the same time it will also prevent the backflow of the blood into the left ventricle. Aortic SL
What are the string-like structures that attach or anchor the AV valve to the wall of the heart and prevent the valve cusps from being forced into the atria during contraction? Cordae Tendinae
The _______ are the 2 upper or receiving chambers of the heart. Atria
The ________ are the 2 lower or discharging chambers of the heart. Ventricle
Arteries carry oxygenated or deoxygenated blood from the heart TO capillaries in body tissue Oxygenated
Veins carry oxygenated or deoxygenated blood to the heart from capillaries in body tissues. Deoxygenated
Contraction of the heart is called _______; relaxation of the heart is called ________ Systolic, Diastolic
What is the mediastinum and what organs are located within it? Lies between lungs and superior to the diaphargm
What is the cardiac cycle? One heart beat
Can you trace the flow of blood entering the heart from the vena cava and back out of the body? Yes
The right ventricle pumps oxygenated or deoxygenated blood into what structure? deoxygenated; lungs
What structure branches or divides to form the right and left pulmonary arteries? pulmonic valve
Heart is a double pump with 2 basic pathways or circuits of blood flow. Describe Systemic circuits - goes everywhere else except lungs; Pulmonary circuit - goes into lungs
What blood vessels supply blood directly to the heart muscle? Coronary arteries - first branch
BP is highest in the arteries and lowest in the veins. T or F True
What is the difference between systolic BP and diastolic BP? Systolic is contracting, diastolic is relaxed
What is the warning sign that the coronary arteries are no longer able to supply enough blood and oxygen to the heart muscle? Angina
The conduction system of the heart consists of 4 parts. In the correct sequence name & describe each Sinotrial (SA) node, Atrioventricular (AV) node, bundle of HI, purkinje fiber
The key of the conduction system; the pacemaker or power station of the heart is the? SA Node
The _________ has the ability to initiate electrical impulses w/out the help of the brain or spinal cord? SA Node
What is the function of the cardiac center? Where is it located? Adjusts frequency of both sympathetic and parasympathetic impulses to produce heart rate that meets changing needs of body cells. Medulla Oblongata
What are the 3 basic types of blood vessels? Describe each and identify their function Arteries - carries blood away from heart; Capillaries - exchange in the vessels between arteries and veins; Veins - carries toward hart
Be able to describe the structural differences between veins and arteries Arteries have more smooth muscle and elastic CT which allows them to adapt to changing BP large veins possess valves to prevent the backflow to blood
The correct sequence of blood flow through blood vessels is: (3) Tunica externa (support), tunica media (change in diameter), tunica interna (lining of bv)
What are the precapillary sphincters? What is the function? Guard and control the flow of blood w/in the capillaries based on needs of cell - intermittent blood flow
Considering the flow of blood...systemic blood flow would be fastest in the aorta or in the arterioles and it would be slowest in the capillaries or the venules? Aorta & capillaries
Blood pressure is always highest in (what blood vessels) and lowest in the? Left ventricle valve and right atrium
Blood pressure is the volume or force of blood as it pushes against the wall of an artery? Name 4 factors create this pressure Volume; Cardiac output, blood volume, peripheal resistance, blood viscosity
What is the hepatic portal circulation? Route of blood flow through liver, then digestive organs & spleen then heart
Name the 3 portions of the aorta Ascending, aortic arch, descending
What are the 3 major arteries that branch from the aortic arch to the aorta? Brachiocephalic, left common carotid, left subclavian
The brachiocephalic artery has 2 branches. What are they? Right subclavian artery & right common carotid artery
The abdominal aorta has many branch arteries that supply the abdominal wall and visceral organs. The first branch of the abdominal aorta is the CELIAC ARTERY. The CELIAC ARTERY has 3 branch. What are they? Gastric artery, splenic artery, hepatic artery
The abdominal aorta eventually divides to form the right and left _____________ which supply blood to the lowest portion of the trunk and legs. These arteries again branch and form the interal and external iliac arteries. Common iliac artery; external
The veins carrying oxygenated blood to the heart are the? Pulmonary
The 2 largest veins that empty DEOXYGENATED BLOOD in the RIGHT ATRIUM OF THE HEART are the _____ & _______? Superior & Inferior vena cava
Differentiate between arrythmia, bradycardia, tachycardia, heart flutter and fibrilation? Arrythmia - abnormal heart beat d/t factors such as damage to conduction system & drugs, BC - <60bpm, TC - >100bpm, heart flutter - >200-300bpm, fibrillation - rapid HR w/uncoordinated contraction - blood isnt pumped from ventricles
CHF def Acute or chronic inability of heart to pumpp out returned to it - possible atheroscelorosis
Heart murmurs def Unusual heart sounds associated w/ defective heart valves
MI def Death of myocardium d/t coronary artery blockage
Pericarditis def Inflammation of pericardium d/t viral or bacterial infection
Aneurysm def Weakened vessel wall bulges, forming balloon - like sac filled w/ blood rupture can be fatal
Arteriosceloris def Hardening of arteries d/t calcium deposits accumulating in tuncia media
Atheriosceloris def Formation of fatty deposits in the tunica interna of arteries. Plagues reduce lumen size & increases probability of blood clot formation
Hypertension def Chronic increase BP exceeds 140/90; prehypertension is 120/80-139/89
Phlebitis def Inflammation of vein - common in legs
Thrombophlebitis def Involves formation of blood clots at the inflammation site
Varicose veins def Dilated, swollen veins, d/t malfunction valves; causes include heredity, pregnancy & lack of physical activity - hemorrhoids
Created by: breinard