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# PC_Terms_Book

Question | Answer |
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accuracy | the correctness of a number in its representation of a given value |

Arabic numbers | a numbering system that uses numeric symbols to indicate numbers, fractions, and decimals; uses the numerals 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 |

common denominator | a number into which each of the unlike denominators of two or more fractions can be divided evenly |

complex fraction | a fraction in which both the numerator and the denominator are fractions |

decimal | a fraction value in which the denominator is 10 or some power of 10 |

denominator | the number in the bottom part of a fraction |

fraction | a portion of a whole that is represented as a ratio |

improper fraction | a fraction with a value greater than 1 (the value of the numerator is larger than the value of the denominator) |

leading zero | a zero that is placed to the left of the decimal point, in the ones place, in a number that is less than one and is being represented by a decimal value |

lowest known place value | the last digit on the right of a written numeral |

military time | a system of time based on a 24-hour format |

mixed number | a whole number and a fraction |

numerator | the number in the top part of a fraction |

place value | the location of a numeral in a string of numbers that describes the numeral's relationship to the decimal point |

product | the result of multiplying one number by another |

proper fraction | a fraction with a value of less than 1 (the value of the numerator is smaller than the value of the denominator) |

quotient | the result of dividing one number by another |

Roman numerals | a numbering system that uses alphabetic symbols to indicate a quantity; uses the letters I, V, and X to represent 1, 5, and 10, respectively |

scientific notation | a method used to write numbers that have a very large or very small numerical value; uses "x 10" with an exponent |

significant figures | the figures in a numeral that are known values and have not been rounded or estimated in the process of mathematical calculation, plus the digit in the lowest place value, which is approximate |

standard time | a system of time that relates to the natural day and is based on a 12-hour format |

sum | the result of adding two or more numbers together |

trailing zero | a zero that appears at the end of a decimal string and is not needed except when considered significant |

conversion factor | an equivalency equal to 1 that can be used when converting units of measure using the ratio-proportion method |

percent | the number of parts per 100; can be written as a fraction, a decimal, or a ratio |

percentage of error | the percentage by which a measurement is inaccurate |

proportion | an expression of equality between two ratios |

ratio | a numerical representation of the relationship between two parts of the whole or between one part and the whole |

ratio-proportion method | a conversion method based on comparing a complete ratio to a ratio with a missing component |

brand name | the name under which the manufacturer markets a drug; a registered trademark of the manufacturer; also known as the trade name |

days' supply | the number of days that a prescription or medication order will last a patient when taken as directed by the prescriber |

DEA number | a number issued by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to signify the authority of the holder to prescribe or handle controlled substances; made up of two letters followed by seven digits, the last of which is a checksum digit used to check the vali |

dose | on a prescription, the indication of how much medication the patient will take at each administration |

dosing schedule | on a prescription, the indication of how often the drug is to be taken |

generic name | the name under which a drug is approved by the Food and Drug Administration; sometimes denotes a drug that is not protected by a trademark; also referred to as a USAN (United States Adopted Name) |

prescription | an order for medication for a patient that is written by a physician or a qualified licensed practitioner to be filled by a pharmacist |

route of administration | on a prescription, the indication of how the medication is to be given |

signa (sig) | from the Latin word for "write"; the part of the prescription that provides instructions for proper use of the medication, including the dose, route of administration, and dosing schedule |

body surface area (BSA) | a measurement related to a patient's weight and height, expressed in meters squared (m^2), and used to calculate patient-specific doses of medications |

Clark's Rule | a formula used to determine an appropriate pediatric dose by using the child's weight in pounds and the normal adult dose; weight in lb/150 lb * adult dose = pediatric dose |

dimensional analysis method | a conversion method in which the given number and unit are multiplied by the ratio of the desired unit to the given unit, which is equivalent to 1 |

gram | the basic unit for measuring weight in the metric system |

liter | the basic unit for measuring volume in the metric system |

meter | the basic unit for measuring length in the metric system |

metric system | a measurement system based on subdivisions and multiples of 10; made up of three basic units: meter, gram, and liter |

vehicle | an inert medium, such as a syrup, in which a drug is administered |

Young's Rule | a formula used to determine an appropriate pediatric dose by using the child's age in years and the normal adult dose; age in years/(age in years + 12 years) * adult dose = pediatric dose |

Celsius | a thermometric scale in which 100 degrees is the boiling point of water and 0 degrees is the freezing point of water |

dosing table | a table providing dose recommendations based on the age and/or the weight of the patient; often used for determining the safe dose for a pediatric patient |

Fahrenheit | a thermometric scale in which 212 degrees is the boiling point of water and 32 degrees is the freezing point of water |

household measure | a system of measure used in homes, particularly in kitchens, in the United States; units of measure for volume include teaspoonful, tablespoonful, cup, pint, quart, and gallon; units for weight are pound and ounce |

atomic weight | the weight of a single atom of an element compared with the weight of a single atom of hydrogen |

electrolytes | substances such as mineral salts that carry an electrical charge when dissolved in a solution |

infusion | the administration of a large volume of liquid medication given parenterally over a long period |

injection | a method of administering medications in which a syringe with a needle or cannula is used to penetrate through the skin or membrane into the tissue below |

intramuscular (IM) injection | an injection given into the aqueous muscle tissue |

intravenous (IV) infusion | the injection of fluid into the veins |

milliequivalent (mEq) | the ratio of the weight of a molecule to its valence, used to measure the concentration of electrolytes in a volume of solution; also an amount of medication that will provide the patient with a specific amount (equivalent amount) of an electrolyte |

millimole (mM) | molecular weight expressed in milligrams |

molecular weight | the sum of the atomic weights of all atoms in one molecule of a compound |

parenteral | administered by injection and not by way of the gastrointestinal system |

powder volume (pv) | the space occupied by dry pharmaceuticals, calculated as the difference between the final volume and the volume of the diluting ingredient, or the diluent volume; the amount of space occupied by lyophilized (freeze-dried) medication in a sterile vial, use |

ratio strength | a means of describing the concentration of a liquid medication based on a ratio such as a grams:b milliliters |

subcutaneous (SC) injection | an injection given into the vascular, fatty layer of tissue under the skin |

unit | the amount of activity associated with a medication that has a biological impact on a patient |

valence | the ability of a molecule to bond, as indicated by its positive or negative charge, represented by a superscript plus or minus sign next to an element's chemical symbol |

drop factor | the number of drops an IV set takes to make 1 mL; also called drip set |

flow rate | the rate, expressed in milliliters per hour or drops per minute, at which medication is flowing through an IV line; also called infusion rate and rate of infusion |

mini-drip set | a drop set at a rate of 60 gtts/mL |

solute | the substance dissolved in the liquid solvent in a solution |

solution | a mixture of two or more substances |

solvent | the liquid that dissolves the solute in a solution |

volume in volume (v/v) | the number of milliliters of a drug (solute) in 100 mL of the final product (solution) |

weight in volume (w/v) | the number of grams of a drug (solute) in 100 mL of the final product (solution) |

active ingredient | the component of a pharmaceutical preparation or medication that exerts pharmacological activity designed to treat or prevent disease |

additive | a pharmaceutical substance, such as a medication, electrolyte, or other ingredient, that is added to another product, such as a compounded sterile preparation, in order to be easily administered to a patient |

alligation method | the mathematical calculation used to determine the amounts of two or more dilutions of differing strengths that will be mixed to prepare a product of a desired strength and quantity |

compounded sterile preparation (CSP) | the mixing of one or more sterile parenteral products using aseptic technique |

compounded stock preparation | a solution that is prepared in a large amount and kept in stock in the pharmacy to be divided for individual prescriptions |

compounding | the process of using raw ingredients and/or other prepared ingredients to create a drug product for a patient |

current formula | a standard pharmaceutical recipe that is commonly used in pharmacy compounding; a recipe often used to prepare compounded stock preparations |

desired formula | a specialized pharmaceutical recipe that may be ordered by the prescriber and that results from altering various components of the current formula |

formula | a written document listing the ingredients and instructions needed to prepare a compound |

inactive ingredient | an inert ingredient that is used as a base, or vehicle, to deliver the active ingredient in a compounded preparation; for example, petrolatum is used as a base in many topical preparations |

percentage strength | a mathematical formula or expression used to identify the number of grams of active ingredient per 100 mL of solution (or per 100 g of solid); may be referred to as percent strength |

special dilution | a custom-made CSP that provides accurate dosage of a medication prepared according to a desired recipe or formula; a term often associated with certain neonatal or pediatric CSPs |

total parenteral nutrition (TPN) | IV administration of total nutrient requirements to patients who require a long-term alternative to enteral feeding |

TPN base solution | components of the TPN solution that provide the primary volumetric source of hydration and calories, often comprised of a combination of dextrose, amino acids, fat emulsion, and sterile water |

weight-in-weight (w/w) formula | the number of grams of a drug (solid) in 100 g of the final product (solid) |

assets | properties, furnishings, inventory, supplies, and equipment owned by the pharmacy; may be put into two categories: current, or short-term, assets and long-term assets |

average wholesale price (AWP) | an average price at which drugs are purchased at the wholesale level, or the average value at which wholesalers sell a particular drug to pharmacies |

base profit | the amount of profit determined by subtracting the total pharmacy overhead amount from the pharmacy's income |

capitation fee | a monthly fee paid by some insurance plans to a pharmacy under a specific prescription reimbursement plan |

current percentage of profit | the amount of profit that is determined by dividing the base profit by income and then multiplying that quotient by 100; often used to determine the desired percentage of profit |

depreciation | an allowance made to account for the decreasing value of a fixed asset; properties, furnishings, and equipment owned by the pharmacy are called fixed assets, or simply assets |

desired percentage of profit | the percentage of profit the pharmacy intends to make on the product after the overall cost is subtracted from the selling price |

discount | a price that is reduced from what is typically charged |

discount rate | the percent that the discounted price is reduced from the regular selling price |

dispensing fee | the amount that is charged over and above the pharmacy's purchase price for a medication; this amount is meant to cover all costs related to filling a prescription, beyond the purchase price of the drug |

disposal value | the value of an item should it be sold or disposed of at the end of its useful life |

flat rate | a low pharmacy selling price for a certain amount of medication, a supply designed to last a specific number of days |

gross profit | the difference between the pharmacy's selling price and purchase price |

income | the money or equivalent received from the sale of medications, supply items, or equipment |

inventory | a listing of all of the items that are available for sale in a business |

inventory value | the total value of all of the drugs and merchandise in stock on a given day |

markup rate | a percentage amount that is determined by subtracting the pharmacy's purchase price for an item from the pharmacy's selling price for that item |

net profit | the difference between the selling price and the overall cost |

overall cost | the sum of the cost to purchase the drug from the manufacturer (known as the pharmacy's purchase price) and the cost to dispense the drug |

overhead | the pharmacy's cost of doing business; this cost includes personnel salaries, equipment, and operating expenses such as rent, taxes, and utilities |

par level | an average inventory range for an item, which generally includes the minimum and maximum stock levels for the item |

pharmacy benefits management (PBM) | a large prescription processing service that contracts with insurance companies and pharmacies to process insurance reimbursement |

profit | the financial gain made when the amount earned is greater than the amount spent during a specified period |

profit margin | the difference between the cost of doing business (the pharmacy's purchase price, overhead, and preparation costs) and the selling price of a drug or product |

purchase price | the cost to purchase the drug from the wholesaler or manufacturer |

selling price | the amount that the pharmacy charges for a particular drug or product; sometimes referred to as accounts receivable |

turnover rate | the number of times the amount of goods in inventory was sold during the year |

wholesaler | a company that sells and distributes a large number of goods such as medications and supply items to a pharmacy; a company that acts as a go-between for pharmacies and manufacturing companies such as drug manufacturers |