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alternative medicine use of herbs, dietary supplements, and homeopathic remedies rather than pharmaceuticals
apothecary forerunner of the modern pharmacists; the name also refers to the shop
Black Box warning information printed on a drug package to alert prescribers to potential problems with the drug
Biopharmaceutical a drug produced by recombinant DNA technology
brand name the name under which the manufacturer markets a drug; also known as the trade name
C-I schedule I controlled substance, a drug with the highest potential for abuse, which may be used only for research under a special license
C-II schedule II controlled substance, a drug with a high potential for abuse, for which dispensing is severely restricted and prescriptions may not be refilled
C-III schedule III controlled substance, a drug with a moderate potential for abuse, which can be refilled no more than 5 times in 6 months and only if authorized by the physician for this time period
C-IV schedule IV controlled substance, a drug dispensed under the same restrictions as schedule III but having less potential for abuse
C-V schedule V controlled substance, a drug with a slight potential for abuse; some of which may be sold without a prescription depending on state law, but the purchaser must sign for the drug and show identification
chemical name a name that describes a drug's chemical composition in detail
clinical trial drug testing on humans, used to determine drug safety and efficacy
controlled substance a drug with potential for abuse; organized into five categories or schedules that specify whether and how the drug may be dispensed
double blind study a clinical trial in which neither the trial participants nor the study staff know whether a particular participant is in the control group or the experimental group
drug a medicinal substance or remedy used to change the way a living organism functions; also called a medication
Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) the branch of the U.S. Justice Department that is responsible for regulating the sale and use of specified drugs, especially controlled substances
drug sponsor the entity, usually a pharmaceutical company, responsible for testing the efficacy and safety of a drug and proposing the drug for approval
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) the agency of the federal government that is responsible for ensuring the safety of drugs and food prepared for the market
generic name a name that identifies a drug independently of its manufacturer; sometimes denotes a drug that is not protected by a trademark; also referred to as a USAN (United States Adopted Name)
homeopathy a system of therapeutics in which diseases are treated by administering minute doses of drugs that, in healthy patients, are capable of producing symptoms like those of the disease being treated
legend drug a drug that may be sold only by prescription and must be labeled "Caution: Federal law prohibits dispensing without prescription" or "Rx only"
medication guide specific information about certain types of drugs that is required by the FDA to be made available to the patient
New Drug Application (NDA) the vehicle through which drug sponsors formally propose that the FDA approve a new pharmaceutical for sale and marketing in the United States
over-the-counter (OTC) drug a drug that may be sold without a prescription
patent a government grant that gives a drug company the exclusive right to manufacture a drug for a certain number of years; protects the company's investment in developing the drug
pharmacist one who is licensed to prepare and sell or dispense drugs and compounds and to fill rescriptions
pharmacognosy the study and identification of natural sources of drugs
pharmacologic effect the action of a drug on a living system
pharmacology the science of drugs and their interactions with the systems of living animals
pharmacopoeia an official listing of medicinal preparations
pharmacy technician an individual working in a pharmacy who, under the supervision of a licensed pharmacist, assists in activities not requiring the professional judgment of a pharmacist
Pharmacy Technician Certification Board (PTCB) a national organization that develops pharmacy technician standards and serves as a credentialing agency for pharmacy technicians
pharmakon a Greek word meaning a magic spell, remedy, or poison that was used in early records to represent the concept of a drug
placebo an inactive substance with no treatment value
prophylactic drug a drug that prevents or decreases the severity of a disease
therapeutic drug a drug that relieves symptoms of a disease
absorption the process whereby a drug enters the circulatory system
addiction a dependence characterized by a perceived need to take a drug to attain the psychological and physical effects of mood altering substances
affinity the strength by which a particular chemical messenger binds to its receptor site on a cell
agonist drugs that bind to a particular receptor site and trigger the cell's response in a manner similar to the action of the body's own chemical messenger
allergen substance that produces an allergic response
allergic response an instance in which the immune system overreacts to an otherwise harmless substance
anaphylactic reaction a severe allergic response resulting in immediate life-threatening respiratory distress, usually followed by vascular collapse and shock and accompanied by hives
angioedema abnormal accumulation of fluid in tissue
antagonist drugs that bind to a receptor site and block the action of the endogenous messenger or other drugs
antigen a specific molecule that stimulates an immune response
bioavailability the degree to which a drug or other substance becomes available to the target tissue after administration
blood-brain barrier a barrier that prevents many substances from entering the cerebrospinal fluid from the blood; formed by glial cells that envelope the capillaries in the central nervous system, presenting a barrier to many water-soluble compounds though they are permeable
ceiling effect a point at which no clinical response occurs with increased dosage
clearance the rate at which a drug is eliminated from a specific volume of blood per unit of time
contraindication a disease, condition, or symptom for which a drug will not be beneficial and may do harm
dependence a state in which a person's body has adapted physiologically and psychologically to a drug and cannot function without it
distribution the process by which a drug moves from the blood into other body fluids and tissues and ultimately to its sites of action
dose the quantity of a drug administered at one time
duration of action the length of time a drug gives the desired response or is at the therapeutic level
elimination removal of a drug or its metabolites from the body by excretion
first-order depending directly on the concentration of the drug; elimination of most drugs is a first-order process in which a constant fraction of the drug is eliminated per unit of time
first-pass effect the extent to which a drug is metabolized by the liver before reaching systemic circulation
half-life the time necessary for the body to eliminate half of the drug in the body at any time; written as T1/2
homeostasis stability of the organism
idiosyncratic reaction an unusual or unexpected response to a drug that is unrelated to the dose given
indication a disease, symptom, or condition for which a drug is known to be of benefit
induction the process whereby a drug increases the concentration of certain enzymes that affect the pharmacologic response to another drug
inhibition the process whereby a drug blocks enzyme activity and impairs the metabolism of another drug
interaction a change in the action of a drug caused by another drug, a food, or another substance such as alcohol or nicotine
lipid a fatty molecule, an important constituent of cell membranes
local effect an action of a drug that is confined to a specific part of the body
loading dose amount of a drug that will bring the blood concentration rapidly to a therapeutic level
maintenance dose amount of a drug administered at regular intervals to keep the blood concentration at a therapeutic level
metabolic pathway the sequence of chemical steps that convert a drug into a metabolite
metabolism the process by which drugs are chemically converted to other compounds
metabolite a substance into which a drug is chemically converted in the body
peak the top or upper limit of a drug's concentration in the blood
pharmacokinetic modeling a method of describing the process of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of a drug within the body mathematically
pharmacokinetics the activity of a drug within the body over a period of time; includes absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination
prophylaxis effect of a drug in preventing infection or disease
pruritus itching sensation
receptor a protein molecule on the surface of or within a cell that recognizes and binds with specific molecules, thereby producing some effect within the cell
side effect a secondary response to a drug other than the primary therapeutic effect for which the drug was intended
solubility a drug's ability to dissolve in body fluids
specificity the property of a receptor site that enables it to bind only with a specific chemical messenger; to bind with a specific cell type, the messenger must have a chemical structure that is complementary to the structure of that cell's receptors
systemic effect an action of a drug that has a generalized, all-inclusive effect on the body
therapeutic effect the desired action of a drug in the treatment of a particular disease state or symptom
therapeutic level the amount of drug in a patient's blood at which beneficial effects occur
therapeutic range the optimum dosage, providing the best chance for successful therapy; dosing below this range has little effect on the healing process, while overdosing can lead to toxicity and death
tolerance a decrease in response to the effects of a drug as it continues to be administered
trough the lowest level of a drug in the blood
urticaria hives, itching sensation
volume of distribution mathematical relationship between the blood concentration attained and the amount of drug administered
wheals slightly elevated, red areas on the body surface
zero-order not depending on the concentration of the drug in the body; elimination of alcohol is a zero-order process in which a constant quantity of the drug is removed per unit of time
active immunity protection against disease that occurs as a result of coming into contact with an infectious agent or an inactivated part of such an agent administered by a vaccine
adverse drug reaction reaction to a drug that is harmful to the well-being of the patient
allergic disease a disease caused by an allergic reaction
allergy a state of heightened sensitivity as a result of exposure to a particular substance
antigen the molecule that an antibody recognizes
Beers List a list of drugs for which monitoring is especially important in elderly patients
buccal to be placed between the cheek and the gums
compliance a patient's adherence to the dose schedule and other particular requirements of the specified regimen
E-prescribing the process which allows a prescriber's computer system to talk to the pharmacy's computer system and the medication order/prescription is transmitted to the pharmacy
histamine a chemical produced by the body that evokes the symptoms of an allergic reaction and is blocked by antihistamines
immunization the process by which the immune system is stimulated to acquire protection against a specific disease; usually achieved by use of a vaccine
inhalation administration of a medication through the respiratory system
inscription part of a prescription that identifies the name of the drug, the dose, and the quantities of the ingredients
instillation administration of a medication drop by drop
intradermal to be injected into the skin
intramuscular to be injected into a muscle; abbreviated IM
intraspinal to be injected into the spinal column
intrathecal see intraspinal
intravenous administration of a medication through a vein, thereby avoiding the first-pass effect; abbreviated IV
local infection an infection restricted to or pertaining to one area of the body
medication reconciliation the providing of a complete and accurate drug profile to each health care provider who cares for a patient
morbidity rate of occurrence of a diseased state or condition
mortality death rate from a particular disease
noncompliance failure to adhere to an appropriate drug regimen
nonpathologic not related to disease
ophthalmic to be administered through the eye
oral see peroral (PO)
order a prescription issued in an institutional setting
otic administered in the ear
parenteral administered by injection rather than by way of the alimentary canal
passive immunity protection against a disease as the result of receiving antibodies that were formed by another person or animal who developed them in response to being infected with the disease
peptide a string of amino acid molecules bound together, usually a fragment of a larger protein molecule
peroral (PO) administration of a medication by mouth in either solid form, as a tablet or capsule, or in liquid form, as a solution or syrup; often referred to as oral
polypharmacy the concurrent use of multiple medications
prescription a direction for medication to be dispensed to a patient, written by a physician or a qualified licensed practitioner and filled by a pharmacist; referred to as an order when the medication is requested in a hospital setting
signa part of a prescription that provides directions to be included on the label for the patient to follow in taking the medication
subcutaneous to be injected into the tissue just beneath the skin
sublingual to be placed under the tongue
systemic pertaining to or affecting the body as a whole
titer concentration of an antibody in the bloodstream
topical applied to the surface of the skin or mucous membranes
vaccine a suspension of disease-causing organisms or fragments of them, administered to induce active immunity to the disease
aerobic needing oxygen to survive
aminoglycoside a class of antibiotics that inhibit bacterial protein synthesis by binding to ribosomal subunits; commonly used to treat serious infections
anaerobic capable of surviving in the absence of oxygen
antibiotic a chemical substance with the ability to kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria by interfering with bacteria life processes
antiseptic a substance that kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms on the outside of the body
arrthythmia variation in heartbeat, irregular heartbeat
bacteria small, single-celled microorganisms that exist in three main forms: spherical (i.e., cocci), rod shaped (i.e., bacilli), and spiral (i.e., spirilla)
bactericidal agent a drug that kills bacteria
bacteriostatic agent a drug that inhibits the growth or multiplication of bacteria
broad-spectrum antibiotic an antibiotic that is effective against multiple organisms
cephalosporin a class of antibiotics with a mechanism of action similar to that of penicillins, but with a different antibacterial spectrum, resistance to beta-lactamase, and pharmacokinetics; divided into first-, second-, third-, and fourth-generation agents
chelation combination of an organic molecule such as a drug with a metal in complexes in which the metal ion is part of a ring
community-acquired contracted outside of the hospital
cyclic lipopeptide a new class of antibiotics that bind to bacterial membranes and cause the cell membrane to depolarize, thus leading to an inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis
disinfectant an agent that frees inanimate objects from infection
D5W dextrose 5% in water
empirical treatment treatment begun before a definite diagnosis can be obtained
Gram staining a staining technique that divides bacteria into gram-positive (purple) or gram-negative (red) based on the properties of their cell walls
hypotension low blood pressure
infection a condition in which bacteria grow in body tissues and cause tissue damage to the host either by their presence or by toxins they produce
ketolide a class of antibiotics that block protein synthesis by binding to ribosomal subunits and may also inhibit the formation of new ribosomes; used primarily to treat bacterial infections in the lungs and sinuses
macrolide a class of bacteriostatic antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis by combining with ribosomes; used primarily to treat pulmonary infections caused by Legionella and gram-positive organisms
nephrotoxicity ability to damage the kidneys
nosocomial acquired by patients in the hospital
NS normal saline
ophthalmic to be used in the eye
otic to be used in the ear
ototoxicity ability to damage the organs of hearing
penicillin a class of antibiotics obtained from Penicillium chrysogenum; kill bacteria by preventing them from forming a rigid cell wall, thereby allowing an excessive amount of water to enter through osmosis and cause lysis of the bacterium cell
pH a measurement of acidity or alkalinity. pH 7 is neutral; a solution with a pH above 7 is alkaline; a solution with a pH below 7 is acidic
quinolone a class of antibiotics with rapid bactericidal action against most gram-negative and many gram-positive bacteria; work by causing DNA breakage and cell death; cross the blood-brain barrier
sepsis a systemic inflammatory response to infection resulting from blood-borne infections
Stevens-Johnson syndrome a sometimes fatal form of erythema multiforme (an allergic reaction marked by red blotches on the skin)
streptogramin one of a class of antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis within the bacterial ribosomes; useful in the treatment of vancomycin- and methicillin-resistant infections
sulfonamides sulfa drugs; a class of bacteriostatic antibiotics that work by blocking a specific step in the biosynthetic pathway of folic acid in bacteria
superinfection a new infection complicating the course of therapy of an existing infection
tetracyclines a class of broad-spectrum bacteriostatic antibiotics that are produced by soil organisms and inhibit protein synthesis by binding to bacterial ribosomes
acute viral infection an infection that quickly resolves with no latent infection
antiretroviral a drug that limits the progression of HIV or other retrovirus infections
antiviral an agent that prevents virus replication in a host cell without interfering with the host's normal function
boost one drug given to increase the serum concentration of another drug
capsid a protein shell that surrounds and protects the nucleic acid within a virus particle
chemokine coreceptor a drug that prevents a strain of HIV from attaching to an immune system cell
cholesterol a eukaryotic sterol that in higher animals is the precursor of bile acids and steroid hormones and is a key constituent of cell membranes
chronic viral infection an infection that has a protracted course with long periods of remission interspersed with recurrence
envelope membrane surrounding the capsid in some viruses and carrying surface proteins that attach to cell surface receptors
ergosterol a form of lipid found in the cell membrane of fungi where higher animals have cholesterol
eukaryotic having a defined nucleus, such as an animal or fungal cell
flu influenza, a common viral infection
fungus a single-cell eukaryotic organism (similar to a human cell rather than to bacteria); marked by a rigid cell wall, the absence of chlorophyll, and reproduction by spores
fusion inhibitor a drug that prevents HIV from entering the immune cells
generalized viral infection an infection that has spread to other tissues by way of the bloodstream or the central nervous system
hepatitis viral inflammation of the liver
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) a retrovirus transmitted in body fluids that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) by attacking T lymphocytes
immunocompromised having a deficiency in the immune response system
immunoglobulin an antibody that reacts to a specific foreign substance or organism and may prevent its antigen from attaching to a cell receptor or may destroy the organism
interferon a substance that exerts virus-nonspecific but host-specific antiviral activity by inducing genes coding for antiviral proteins that inhibit the synthesis of viral RNA
integrase inhibitor a drug that prevents DNA produced by the reverse transcriptase of HIV from becoming incorporated into the patient's DNA
latency the ability of a virus to lie dormant and then, under certain conditions, reproduce and again behave like an infective agent, causing cell damage
local viral infection a viral infection affecting tissues of a single system such as the respiratory tract, eye, or skin
naked virus a virus without an envelope covering the capsid
non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) a drug that inhibits HIV reverse transcriptase by preventing the enzyme from working mechanically
nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) a drug that inhibits HIV reverse transcriptase by competing with natural nucleic acid building block substrates, causing termination of the DNA chain
nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NtRTI) a drug that inhibits HIV reverse transcriptase by competing with natural nucleic acid building block substrates, causing termination of chain formation, and is more nearly in the form used by the body than an NRTI
permeability the ability of a material to allow molecules or ions to pass through it
post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) the administration of antiretrovirals after exposure to HIV
prodrug a compound that, on administration and chemical conversion by metabolic processes, becomes an active pharmacological agent
prokaryotic not having a defined nucleus, like bacteria
protease inhibitor (PI) a drug that prevents the cleavage of certain HIV protein precursors needed for the replication of new infectious virions
pulse dosing a regimen of dosing one week per month; commonly used for treating fungal nail infections
retrovirus a virus that can copy its RNA genetic information into the host's DNA
reverse transcriptase a retroviral enzyme that makes a DNA copy from an RNA original
slow viral infection an infection that maintains a progressive course over months or years with cumulative damage to body tissues, ultimately ending in the host's death
troche a small lozenge
vaccination the introduction of a vaccine, a component of an infectious agent, into the body to produce immunity to the actual agent
virion an individual viral particle capable of infecting a living cell; consists of nucleic acid surrounded by a capsid (protein shell)
virus a minute infectious agent that does not have all the components of a cell and thus can replicate only within a living host cell
addiction a compulsive disorder that leads to continued use of a drug despite harm to the user
afferent system the nerves and sense organs that bring information to the CNS; part of the peripheral nervous system
alpha receptors (alpha-adrenergic receptors) nerve receptors that control vasoconstriction, pupil dilation, and relaxation of the GI smooth muscle in response to epinephrine
amide a compound containing a -CONH- group; a longer-acting local anesthetic that is metabolized by liver enzymes
analgesic a drug that alleviates pain
analgesic ladder a guideline for selecting pain-relieving medications according to the severity of the pain and whether agents lower on the ladder have been able to control the pain
anesthesiologist a physician who oversees administration of anesthesia during surgery
antagonists drugs used to reverse the effects of other drugs, such as in treatment of benzodiazepine or narcotic overdoses
anticholinesterase a drug that potentiates the action of acetylcholine by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which breaks acetylcholine down
aura a subjective sensation or motor phenomenon that precedes and marks the onset of amigraine headache
autonomic nervous system (ANS) the part of the efferent system of the PNS that regulates activities of body structures not under voluntary control
beta-1 receptors nerve receptors on the heart that control the rate and strength of the heartbeat in response to epinephrine
beta-2 receptors nerve receptors that control vasodilation and relaxation of the smooth muscle of the airways in response to epinephrine
central nervous system (CNS) the brain and spinal cord
dependence a physical and emotional reliance on a drug
efferent system the nerves that dispatch information out from the CNS; part of the peripheral nervous system
endotracheal intubation insertion of a tube into the trachea to keep it open
ester a compound containing a -COO- group; a short-acting local anesthetic, metabolized by pseudocholinesterase of the plasma and tissue fluids
general anesthesia a condition characterized by reversible unconsciousness, analgesia, skeletal muscle relaxation, and amnesia on recovery
local anesthesia the production of transient and reversible loss of sensation in a defined area of the body
malignant hyperthermia a rare, but serious, side effect of anesthesia associated with an increase in intracellular calcium and a rapid rise in body temperature
migraine headache a severe, throbbing, unilateral headache, usually accompanied by nausea, photophobia, phonophobia, and hyperesthesia
narcotic analgesic pain medication containing an opioid
neuromuscular blocking skeletal muscle paralysis
neuron a nerve cell that transmits information
neurotransmitter a chemical substance that is selectively released from a neuron and stimulates or inhibits activity in the neuron's target cell
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) a drug such as aspirin or ibuprofen that reduces pain and inflammation
opiate a narcotic that is either derived from opium or synthetically produced to resemble opium derivatives chemically
opioid a substance, whether a drug or a chemical naturally produced by the body, that acts on opioid receptors to reduce the sensation of pain
pain the electrical activity in afferent neurons with sensory endings in peripheral tissue with a higher threshold than those of temperature or touch; a signal to warn of damage or presence of disease; the fifth vital sign; classified as acute, chronic nonmali
patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) pump a means of pain control whereby the patient can regulate, within certain limits, the administration of pain medication
peripheral nervous system (PNS) the nerves and sense organs outside the CNS
somatic nervous system the part of the efferent system of the PNS that regulates the skeletal muscles
vascular theory a theory that proposes that migraine headaches are caused by vasodilation and the concomitant mechanical stimulation of sensory nerve endings
anorexia loss of appetite for food
antipsychotics drugs that are used to treat schizophrenia; reduce symptoms of hallucinations, delusions, and thought disorders; also called neuroleptics
anxiety a state of uneasiness characterized by apprehension and worry about possible events
autism a disorder that first appears in childhood, characterized by repetitive behavior and impairment in social interaction and communication; it can be expressed through mood swings, irritability, tantrums, aggression, and self-injury
bipolar disorder a condition in which a patient presents with mood swings that alternate between periods of major depression and periods of mild to severe chronic agitation
cataplexy short periods of muscle weakness and loss of muscle tone associated with sudden emotions such as joy, fear, or anger; a symptom of narcolepsy
delirium tremens (DTs) a condition caused by cessation of alcohol consumption in which coarse, irregular tremors are accompanied by vivid hallucinations
depression a condition characterized by the feeling that life has no meaning, pessimism, intense sadness, loss of concentration, and problems with eating and sleeping
endogenous anxiety anxiety caused by factors within the organism
exogenous anxiety anxiety caused by factors outside the organism
extrapyramidal symptoms disorders of muscle movement control caused by blocking dopamine receptors in the basal ganglia
ghost empty shell of an OROS tablet, excreted in the stool after the drug has dissolved
hypnotic a drug that induces sleep
insomnia difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep or not feeling refreshed on awakening
mania a mood of extreme excitement, excessive elation, hyperactivity, agitation, and increased psychomotor activity
monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOIs) an antidepressant drug that inhibits the activity of the enzymes that break down catecholamines (such as norepinephrine) and serotonin
narcolepsy a sleep disorder in which inappropriate attacks of sleep occur during the daytime hours
neuroleptics drugs that are used to treat schizophrenia; reduce symptoms of hallucinations, delusions, and thought disorders
neurotransmitter a chemical produced by a nerve cell and involved in transmitting information in the body
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) a mental disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent urges to perform repetitive acts such as hand washing
osmotic-controlled release oral delivery system (OROS) a drug delivery system that allows the drug to dissolve through pores in the tablet shell; the empty shell, called a ghost, is passed in the stool
panic intense, overwhelming, and uncontrollable anxiety
priapism bnormal penile erection
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) a disorder characterized by persistent agitation or persistent, recurrent fear after the end of a traumatic event and lasting for over a month or impairing work or relationships
QT interval the time between depolarization and repolarization of the ventricles of the heart during a heartbeat, as shown on the electrocardiogram
seasonal affective disorder (SAD) a form of depression that recurs in the fall and winter and remits in the spring and summer
schizophrenia a chronic psychotic disorder manifested by retreat from reality, delusions, hallucinations, ambivalence, withdrawal, and bizarre or regressive behavior
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) an antidepressant drug that blocksthe reuptake of serotonin, with little effect on norepinephrine and fewer side effects than other antidepressant drugs
serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) an antidepressant drug that blocks the reabsorption of both serotonin and norepinephrine, increasing the levels of both neurotransmitters
serotonin syndrome a possibly fatal condition caused by combining antidepressants that increase serotonin levels with other medications that also stimulate serotonin receptors
tardive dyskinesia involuntary movements of the mouth, lips, and tongue
tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) one of a class of antidepressant drug, developed earlier than the SSRIs and SNRIs, that also prevent neuron reuptake of norepinephrine and/or serotonin
unipolar depression major depression with no mania
absence seizure a type of generalized seizure characterized by a sudden, momentary break in consciousness; formerly often called petit mal seizure
adjunct a drug used with another drug
Alzheimer disease a degenerative disorder of the brain that leads to progressive dementia and changes in personality and behavior
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) a degenerative disease of the motor nerves; also called Lou Gehrig's disease
anticonvulsant a drug to control seizures
ataxia irregular muscle movements
atonic seizure a type of generalized seizure characterized by sudden loss of both muscle tone and consciousness
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) a neurologic disorder characterized by hyperactivity, impulsivity, and distractibility
area under the curve (AUC) a measure of drug concentration in the blood
basal nuclei symmetric, subcortical masses of gray matter embedded in the lower portions of the cerebral hemisphere; part of the extrapyramidal system; also called basal ganglia
catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) an enzyme that metabolizes levodopa in the body; inhibited by certain anti-Parkinson agents
convulsion involuntary contraction or series of contractions of the voluntary muscles
diplopia the perception of two images of a single object
dysarthria imperfect articulation of speech
dyskinesia impairment of the power of voluntary movement
dysphagia difficulty in swallowing
epilepsy a neurologic disorder involving sudden and recurring seizures
generalized seizure a seizure that involves both hemispheres of the brain simultaneously and has no local origin; can be a tonicclonic (grand mal), absence (petit mal), myoclonic, or atonic seizure
grand mal seizure a type of generalized seizure characterized by body rigidity followed by muscle jerks
isomer one of two or more compounds that contain the same number and type of atoms but have different molecular structures
Lou Gehrig disease see amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
motor end plate the neuromuscular junction, where the nervous system and muscular system meet to produce or stop movement
multiple sclerosis (MS) an autoimmune disease in which the myelin sheaths around nerves degenerate
muscle fasciculation a small, local, involuntary muscular contraction visible under the skin
myasthenia gravis an autoimmune disorder of the neuromuscular junction in which the ACh receptors are destroyed at the motor end plate, preventing muscles from responding to nerve signals to move them
myoclonic seizure a type of generalized seizure characterized by sudden muscle contractions with no loss of consciousness
on-off phenomenon a wide fluctuation between abnormally increased and abnormally diminished motor function, present in many Parkinson patients after about 5 years of levodopa therapy
Parkinson disease a neurologic disorder characterized by akinesia, resting tremor, and muscular rigidity
partial seizure an abnormal electrical discharge centered in a specific area of the brain; usually caused by a trauma
petit mal seizure a type of generalized seizure characterized by a sudden, momentary break in consciousness
ptosis paralytic drooping of the upper eyelid
restless leg syndrome an overpowering urge to move the legs, especially at rest
seizure abnormal electrical discharges in the cerebral cortex caused by sudden, excessive firing of neurons; result in a change in behavior of which the patient is not aware
status epilepticus a serious disorder involving tonic-clonic convulsions that last at least 30 minutes
substance P a potent neurotransmitter mediating sensations of pain, touch, and temperature
substantia nigra a layer of gray substance separating parts of the brain
tonic-clonic seizure a type of generalized seizure characterized by body rigidity followed by muscle jerks; formerly called a grand mal seizure
antihistamines common term for drugs that block the H1 receptors
antitussives drugs that block or suppress the act of coughing
aspiration inhalation of fluids from the mouth and throat
asthma a reversible lung disease with intermittent attacks in which inspiration is obstructed; provoked by airborne allergens
bronchitis a condition in which the inner lining of the bronchial airways becomes inflamed, causing the expiration of air from the lungs to be obstructed
bronchodilator an agent that relaxes smooth-muscle cells of the bronchioles, thereby increasing airway diameter and improving the movement of gases into and out of the lungs
bronchospasm spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscles of the bronchiole
corticosteroid a drug that chemically resembles substances produced by the adrenal gland and acts as an anti-inflammatory agent to suppress the immune response by stimulating adenylate cyclase
cotinine a major metabolite of nicotine
cough reflex a coordinated series of events, initiated by stimulation of receptors in the lungs and airways, that results in a cough
cystic fibrosis (CF) a hereditary disorder of infants, children, and young adults that involves widespread dysfunction of the gastrointestinal and pulmonary systems
decongestant an agent that causes the mucous membranes to shrink, thereby allowing the sinus cavities to drain
emphysema an irreversible lung disease characterized by destruction of the alveoli in the lungs, which allows air to accumulate in tissues and organs
expectorant an agent that decreases the thickness and stickiness of mucus, enabling the patient to rid the lungs and airway of mucus when coughing
histoplasmosis a respiratory tract infection caused by a fungus, most often found in accumulated droppings from birds and bats; often called the summer flu
irritant receptor a nerve cell in the lungs and airways that responds to coarse particles and chemicals to trigger a cough
leukotriene inhibitor an agent that blocks the body's inflammatory responses to the leukotrienes or blocks their synthesis
mast cell stabilizer an agent that stabilizes mast cell membranes against rupture caused by antigenic substances and thereby reduces the amount of histamine and other inflammatory substances released in airway tissues
metered dose inhaler (MDI) a device that delivers a specific amount of medication (as for asthma) in a fine enough spray to reach the innermost parts of the lungs using a puff of compressed gas
monoclonal antibody an antibody produced in a laboratory from an isolated specific lymphocyte that produces a pure antibody against a known, specific antigen
mucolytic an agent that destroys or dissolves mucus
nebulizer a device used in the administration of inhaled medications, using air flowing past a liquid to create a mist
nicotine the addictive component of tobacco
peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) the maximum flow rate generated during a forced expiration, measured in liters per minute
peak flow meter a device used to measure the PEFR as an indication of respiratory status; usually used twice a day by asthma patients
percussion a therapy used for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients involving a tapping movement to induce cough and expectoration of sputum from the lungs; usually preceded by nebulizer therapy during which nebulized sterile water or normal saline is breathed to liquefy pu
pneumonia a common lung infection, caused by microorganisms that gain access to the lower respiratory tract
respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) a syndrome occurring in newborns that is characterized by acute asphyxia with hypoxia and acidosis
rhinitis medicamentosa a condition of decreased response that results when nasal decongestants are used over prolonged periods
spacer a device used with a metered dose inhaler (MDI) to decrease the amount of spray deposited on the back of the throat and swallowed
status asthmaticus a medical emergency that begins as an asthma attack but does not respond to normal management; can result in loss of consciousness and death
stretch receptor a nerve cell in the lungs and airways that responds to elongation of muscle to trigger a cough
surfactant a fluid that reduces surface tension between the air in the alveoli and the inner surfaces of the alveoli, allowing gas to be exchanged between the lung and the air
tachypnea very rapid respiration causing a flushed appearance; a characteristic ofemphysema
tuberculosis (TB) a disease of the lungs and other body tissues and organs caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis
xanthine derivative a drug that causes relaxation of airway smooth muscle, thus causing airway dilation and better air movement
antiemetic a drug that inhibits impulses that cause vomiting from going to the stomach
body mass index (BMI) a guide to use in determining whether to initiate pharmacologic treatment for obesity; calculated by dividing the patient's weight (in kilograms) by the patient's height (in meters) squared (kg/m2)
bowel evacuant an agent used to empty the colon prior to GI examination or after toxic ingestion
chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) an area below the floor of the fourth ventricle of the brain that can trigger nausea and vomiting when certain signals are received
Crohn disease an inflammatory bowel disease affecting the entire GI tract from mouth to anus
diverticular disease formation and inflammation of an outpocketing from the colon wall
duodenal ulcer a peptic lesion situated in the duodenum
emesis vomiting
empty stomach 2 hours before or after eating
fiber the undigested residue of fruits, vegetables, and other foods of plant origin that remains after digestion by the human GI enzymes; characterized by fermentability and may be either water soluble or insoluble
gastric stasis lack of stomach motility
gastric ulcer a local excavation in the gastric mucosa
gastritis irritation and superficial erosion of the stomach lining
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) a GI disease characterized by radiating burning or pain in the chest and an acid taste, caused by backflow of acidic stomach contents across an incompetent lower esophageal sphincter; also referred to as heartburn
gastrointestinal (GI) tract a continuous tube that begins in the mouth and extends through the pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine to end at the anus
GI transit time the time it takes for material to pass from one end of the GI tract to the other; the slower the GI transit time, the greater the amounts of nutrients and water absorbed
H2 histamine receptor antagonist an agent that blocks acid and pepsin secretion in response to histamine, gastrin, foods, distention, caffeine, or cholinergic stimulation; used to treat GERD and H. pylori
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) a bacterium that contributes to the development of many gastric ulcers
hemorrhoids engorgements of the vascular cushions situated within the sphincter muscles; result from pressure exerted on anal veins while straining to pass a stool
hepatitis a disease of the liver that causes inflammation, can be acute or chronic, and has several forms A through G
hepatitis A a viral form of hepatitis that is usually mild and transient and can be spread from one person to another
hepatitis B the most dangerous form of hepatitis, accompanied by jaundice and easily spread from one person to another
hepatitis C an infection of the liver that cannot be spread from one person to another by contact; most commonly transmitted by blood transfusions or illicit drug use
hiatal hernia a protrusion through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm
host the animal on which a parasite feeds
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) a functional disorder in which the lower GI tract does not have appropriate tone or spasticity to regulate bowel activity
IVIG the notation for immune globulin that is given intravenously
malabsorption syndrome impaired intestinal absorption of nutrients
malaria an infectious febrile disease caused by the protozoan Plasmodium and transmitted by the Anopheles mosquito
morbid obesity a state in which an individual's weight is two or more times the ideal body weight (IBW)
obesity a state in which an individual's total body weight includes greater quantities of fat than is considered normal (25% of total body weight for men and 35% for women)
osmotic laxative an organic substance that draws water into the colon and thereby stimulates evacuation
parasite an organism that lives on or in another organism (known as the host), surviving by drawing nourishment from the food or the tissues of the host; the parasite lives within the intermediate host during the larval stage and within the definitive host at matu
peptic disease disorders of the upper GI tract caused by the action of acid and pepsin; includes mucosal injury, erythema, erosions, and frank ulceration
peptic ulcer an ulcer formed at any part of the GI tract exposed to acid and the enzyme pepsin
phenothiazine a drug, related to the typical antipsychotics, that controls vomiting by inhibiting the CTZ
proton pump inhibitor a drug that blocks gastric acid secretion by inhibiting the enzyme that pumps hydrogen ions into the stomach
protozoan single-celled animal
reflux backflow; specifically in GERD, the backflow of acidic stomach contents across an incompetent lower esophageal sphincter
saline laxative an inorganic salt that attracts water into the hollow portion (lumen) of the colon, increasing intraluminal pressure to cause evacuation
stimulant laxative a laxative that increases gut activity by irritating the mucosa
stress ulcer a peptic ulcer, usually gastric, that occurs in a clinical setting; caused by a breakdown of natural mucosal resistance
surfactant laxative a stool softener that has a detergent activity that facilitates mixing of fat and water, making the stool soft and mushy
traveler's diarrhea diarrhea caused by ingesting contaminated food or water; so called because it is often contracted by travelers in countries where the water supply is contaminated
ulcer a local defect or excavation of the surface of an organ or tissue
ulcerative colitis irritation and inflammation of the large bowel, causing it to look scraped; characterized by bloody mucus leading to watery diarrhea containing blood, mucus, and pus
vector an animal that transfers a parasite to a host
vertigo the sensation of the room spinning when one gets up or changes positions; can be treated with anticholinergic agents
acute renal failure rapid reduction in kidney function resulting in accumulation of nitrogen and other wastes
benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) abnormal enlargement of the prostate gland, usually associated with aging
carbonic anhydrase inhibitor a diuretic that acts in the proximal tubule to increase urine volume and change the pH to alkaline
diuretic a substance that rids the body of excess fluid and electrolytes by increasing the urine output
filtration the removal of substances from the blood as part of the formation of urine by the renal tubules
hematocrit the proportion of volume of red blood cells to the total volume of blood
loop diuretic a drug that inhibits reabsorption of sodium and chloride in the loop of Henle, thereby causing increased urinary output
nephron glomerulotubular units that are the working units of the kidney
nocturia urinary frequency at night
osmotic diuretic a drug that increases the osmotic pressure of glomerular filtrate, thereby inhibiting tubular reabsorption of water and electrolytes and increasing urinary output
potassium-sparing diuretic a drug that promotes excretion of water and sodium but inhibits the exchange of sodium for potassium
reabsorption the process by which substances are pulled back into the blood after waste products have been removed during the formation of urine
reticulocytes immature red blood cells
secretion the release of cell products, including hydrogen and potassium ions and acids and bases, into urine being formed
stress incontinence urine leakage during physical movements
thiazide diuretic a drug based on benzothiadiazine that blocks a pump that removes sodium and chloride together from the distal tubule
uremia the clinical syndrome resulting from renal dysfunction in which excessive products of protein metabolism are retained in the blood
urinary tract the group of organs that include the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, and that is involved in the production and transportation of urine
urinary tract infection (UTI) an infection caused by bacteria, usually E. coli, that enter via the urethra and progress up the urinary tract; characterized by the presence of bacteria in the urine with localized symptoms
action potential the electrical signal that causes a muscle to contract
afterload arterial impedance, or the force against which cardiac muscle shortens; along with preload and contractility, determines cardiac output
angina pectoris spasmodic or suffocating chest pain caused by an imbalance between oxygen supply and oxygen demand
anticoagulant a drug that prevents clot formation by affecting clotting factors
antiplatelet a drug that reduces the risk of clot formation by inhibiting platelet aggregation
arrhythmia any variation from the normal heartbeat
ascites the accumulation of fluids in the abdominal organs and the lower extremities
atherosclerosis accumulation of lipoproteins and fats on the inner surfaces of arteries, eventually clogging the arteries and leading to MI, stroke, or gangrene
atrioventricular (AV) node part of the conduction system of the heart that carries the action potential from the atria to the ventricles with a delay
beta blocker a Class II antiarrhythmic drug that competitively blocks response to beta adrenergic stimulation and therefore lowers heart rate, myocardial contractility, blood pressure, and myocardial oxygen demand; used to treat arrhythmias, MIs, and angina
blood pressure (BP) the result of the heart forcing the blood through the capillaries; measured in millimeters of mercury, both when the heart is contracting and forcing the blood (systolic) and when the heart is relaxed and filling with blood (diastolic)
bradycardia abnormally slow heart rate (below 60 beats per minute)
calcium channel blocker a Class IV antiarrhythmic drug that prevents the movement of calcium ions through slow channels; used for most supraventricular tachyarrhythmias and in angina
cardiomegaly enlargement of the heart due to overwork from overstimulation
cardiovascular (CV) pertaining to the heart and blood vessels
cholesterol an odorless, white, waxlike, powdery substance that is present in all foods of animal origin but not in foods of plant origin; circulates continuously in the blood for use by all body cells
clotting cascade a series of events that initiate blood clotting, or coagulation
congestive heart failure (CHF) a condition in which the heart can no longer pump adequate blood to the body's tissues; results in engorgement of the pulmonary vessels
contractility the cardiac muscle's capacity for becoming shorter in response to a stimulus; along with preload and afterload, determines cardiac output
depolarization reversal of the negative voltage across a heart or nerve cell membrane, caused by an inflow of positive ions
diastolic blood pressure the blood pressure measurement that measures the pressure during the dilation of the heart
ectopic pacemaker a pacemaker other than the SA node
fibrinolytic an agent that dissolves clots
glycoprotein antagonist an antiplatelet agent that binds to receptors on platelets, preventing platelet aggregation as well as the binding of fibrinogen and other adhesive molecules
hematocrit the proportion of a blood sample that is red blood cells
high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) lipoproteins containing 5% triglyceride, 25% cholesterol, and 50% protein; "good cholesterol"
hypercholesterolemia excessive cholesterol in the blood
hyperlipidemia elevation of the levels of one or more of the lipoproteins in the blood
hypertension elevated blood pressure, where systolic blood pressure is greater than 140 mm Hg and diastolic pressure is greater than 90 mm Hg
International Normalized Ratio (INR) a method of standardizing the prothrombin time (PT) by comparing it to a standard index
ischemic stroke a cerebral infarction, in which a region of the brain is damaged by being deprived of oxygen
lipoprotein a spherical particle containing a core of triglycerides and cholesterol, in varying proportions, surrounded by a surface coat of phospholipids that enables it to remain in solution
low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) lipoproteins containing 6% triglycerides and 65% cholesterol; "bad cholesterol"
membrane stabilizing agent a Class I antiarrhythmic drug that slows the movement of ions into cardiac cells, thus reducing the action potential and dampening abnormal rhythms and heartbeats
myocardial hypertrophy thickening of the heart muscle in response to overstimulation
myocardial infarction (MI) a heart attack; occurs when a region of the heart muscle is deprived of oxygen
partial thromboplastin time (PTT) a test that measures the function of the intrinsic and common pathways in blood clotting; affected by heparin
preload the mechanical state of the heart at the end of diastole; along with afterload and contractility, determines cardiac output
prothrombin time (PT) a test that assesses the function of the extrinsic pathways of the coagulation system; affected by warfarin
pulmonary embolism (PE) sudden blocking of the pulmonary artery by a blood clot
repolarization restoration of the negative voltage across a heart or nerve cell membrane, caused by an outflow of positive ions
reversible ischemic neurologic deficit (RIND) a neurologic change, caused by a temporary shortage of oxygen, that reverses spontaneously but less rapidly than a TIA
sinoatrial (SA) node the normal pacemaker area of the heart
stable angina a type of angina characterized by effort-induced chest pain from physical activity or emotional stress; usually predictable and reproducible
statin an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, a drug that inhibits the rate-limiting step in cholesterol formation
stroke the result of an event (finite, ongoing, or protracted occurrences) that interrupts oxygen supply to an area of the brain; usually caused by cerebral infarction or cerebral hemorrhage
systolic blood pressure a blood pressure measurement that measures the pressure during contraction of the heart
tachycardia excessively fast heart rate
thrombus blood clot
thrombocytopenia a decrease in the bone marrow production of blood platelets
transient ischemic attack (TIA) temporary neurologic change that occurs when part of the brain lacks sufficient blood supply over a brief period of time; may be a warning sign and predictor of imminent stroke
triglycerides Neutral fats synthesized from carbohydrates for storage in adipose cells
unstable angina a type of angina characterized by chest pain that occurs with increasing frequency, diminishes the patient's ability to work, and has a decreasing response to treatment; may signal an oncoming MI
variant angina a type of angina characterized by chest pain due to coronary artery spasm; usually not stress induced
very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs) lipoproteins containing 60% triglycerides and 12% cholesterol
acetylcholine (ACh) a neurotransmitter that binds to ACh receptors on the membranes of muscle cells, beginning a process that ultimately results in muscle contraction
analgesic pain relieving
antipyretic fever reducing
arthritis joint inflammation; persistent pain due to functional problems of the joints
autoimmune disease illness in which the immune system attacks and destroys healthy tissue within the body
bursitis inflammation of a bursa
cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) an enzyme that is present in most body tissues and produces protective prostaglandins to regulate physiological processes such as GI mucosal integrity
cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) an enzyme that is present in the synovial fluid of arthritis patients and is associated with the pain and inflammation of arthritis
disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) agents that can modify the progression of rheumatoid arthritis
gouty arthritis a disease resulting from the improper excretion of uric acid; also called gout
muscle relaxant a drug that reduces or prevents skeletal muscle contraction
muscle spasticity a condition whereby muscle fibers are in a state of involuntary, continuous contraction that causes pain
nonnarcotic analgesic a drug used for pain, inflammation, and fever that is not a controlled substance
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic drugs that are not controlled substances or steroids; used to treat arthritis and for other indications such as pain and inflammation
osteoarthritis a degenerative joint disease resulting in loss of cartilage, elasticity, and thickness
Reye syndrome a condition that can develop in children who have been exposed to chicken pox or other viral infections and are given aspirin; characterized by amnesia, lethargy, disorientation, and agitation that can culminate in coma and respiratory failure
rheumatoid arthritis (RA) an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system attacks its own connective tissue; characterized by inflammation of the synovial membrane of the joints
salicylates a class of nonnarcotic analgesics that have both pain-relieving and antipyretic (fever-reducing) properties
salicylism mild salicylate intoxication, characterized by ringing in the ears, dizziness, headache, and mental confusion
somatic pain dull, throbbing pain from skin, muscle, and bone
tophus a deposit of sodium urate around a joint
visceral pain sharp, stabbing pain from the organs
AB rated of a generic drug, rated as bioequivalent to the branded drug by the FDA as shown by an experimental study
Addison disease a life-threatening deficiency of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids that is treated with the daily administration of corticosteroid
alopecia hair loss
anabolic treatment muscle building
androgen hormone that promotes development and maintenance of male characteristics
blastocyst the stage in development at which a fertilized egg has divided into 70-100 cells and is ready to implant, consisting of the inner embryoblast and an outer layer that will become the placenta
chancre small, usually painless, highly infectious ulcer; the primary lesion of syphilis
circadian regularly recurring on a cycles of 24 hours
climacteric the syndrome of endocrine, somatic, and psychic changes occurring at the end of the reproductive period in females
corticosteroid steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex
Cushing disease a disease caused by overproduction of steroids or by excessive administration of corticosteroids over an extended period
Dispense As Written (DAW) instruction in a prescription to prevent substitution of generic drugs for the branded drug
dyspareunia a condition of the female in which normal intercourse is painful
endocrine system glands and other structures that elaborate internal secretions, called hormones, that are released directly into the circulatory system
endometrium the lining of the uterus, which grows in the early part of the menstrual cycle to be ready to receive a fertilized egg and breaks down at the end of the cycle, leading to menstruation
estrogen one of the group of hormones that stimulate the growth of reproductive tissue in females
feedback mechanism the return of some of the output of a system as input so as to exert some control on the process
gestational diabetes diabetes that occurs during pregnancy when insufficient insulin is produced
glucocorticoid corticosteroid involved in metabolism and immune system regulation
gluconeogenesis the process of forming new glucose, in which protein and fatty acids are converted into immediate energy sources
growth hormone (GH) a fundamental hormone that affects metabolism, skeletal growth, and somatic growth; deficiency causes growth retardation
growth hormone releasing factor (GHRF) a neuropeptide secreted by the hypothalamus that stimulates the secretion of growth hormone by the pituitary
gynecomastia excessive development of the male mammary glands, with or without tenderness
HbA1C glycosylated hemoglobin an "average" of the sugar measured in blood glucose over a period of time
hirsutism abnormal hairiness, especially in women
hormone therapy (HT) replacement of deficient hormones such as estrogen
hyperglycemia elevated blood sugar level
hyperthyroidism a condition caused by excessive thyroid hormone and marked by increased metabolic rate; also called thyrotoxicosis
hypoglycemia low blood glucose level (less than 70 mg/dL)
hypogonadism a deficiency of hormone production and secretion
hypothyroidism a deficiency of thyroid activity that results in a decreased metabolic rate, tiredness, and lethargy in adults and causes cretinism in children
impotence failure of the male to initiate or to maintain an erection until ejaculation
mineralocorticoid corticosteroid involved in electrolyte and water balance
oral contraceptive (OCs) a combination of one or more hormonal compounds taken orally to prevent the occurrence of pregnancy
osteoblast a cell that forms bone
osteoclast a cell that resorbs bone
osteoporosis the condition of reduced bone mineral density, disrupted microarchitecture of bone structure, and increased likelihood of fracture
oxytocic agent a drug that promotes contraction of uterine muscle at term of pregnancy
priapism frequent or prolonged, painful penile erections
progestin a synthetic hormone that emulates the effects of progesterone
progesterone the hormone that prepares the uterus for the reception and development of the fertilized ovum
secondary diabetes diabetes caused by drugs
target a cell, tissue, or organ that is affected by a particular hormone
testosterone a hormone that is responsible for sperm production, sexual potency, and the maintenance of muscle mass and strength, among other functions
thyroid gland a gland that produces hormones that stimulate various body tissues to increase their activity level
thyroid storm a life-threatening medical emergency with the symptoms of thyrotoxicosis, but more exaggerated
tocolytic agent a drug that slows labor in pregnancy, used to treat premature labor
type I diabetes insulin-dependent diabetes, in which the pancreas has no ability to produce insulin
type II diabetes a type of diabetes characterized by insulin insufficiency or by the resistance of the target tissues to the insulin produced
vasomotor affecting constriction and dilation of blood vessels
virilization the development of male characteristics
acne vulgaris an inflammation of the skin, usually on the face and neck, that is caused by increased activity of the sebaceous glands at puberty
actinic keratosis a scaly skin lesion that is caused by too much sun and can lead to skin cancer
aqueous humor the liquid in the front portion of the eye
atopic eczema a chronic pruritic eruption of unknown etiology, although allergic, hereditary, and psychogenic factors may be involved; also called atopic dermatitis
basal cell carcinoma a slow-growing skin cancer that usually forms polyps and rarely metastasizes
beyond-use date the date after which a drug should not be used once it has been removed from the intact container
candidiasis a fungal infection (Candida albicans) most commonly involving the oral and vaginal mucosa
carbuncle a coalescent mass of infected hair follicles that are deeper than furuncles
conjunctivitis pink eye; inflammation of the membrane covering the inside of the eyelid and the outside of the eyeball
contact dermatitis an inflammatory reaction produced by contact with an irritating agent
dermatome area of the skin associated with one pair of nerves emerging horizontally from the spinal cord
dermis layer of skin below the epidermis
eczema a hot, itchy, red, oozing skin inflammation; also called dermatitis
emulsify to break a liquid that does not dissolve in water into small globules that can be suspended in water
epidermis the top layer of the skin
erysipelas a skin infection characterized by redness and warmth, local pain, edematous plaque with sharply established borders, chills, malaise, and fever; a form of cellulitis
folliculitis an inflammation of a hair follicle by a minute, red, pustulated nodule without involvement of the surrounding tissue
furuncle a boil; caused by a staphylococcal infection of a sebaceous gland and the associated hair follicle
glaucoma a chronic eye disorder characterized by abnormally high internal eye pressure that destroys the optic nerve and causes partial or complete loss of vision
impetigo a superficial, highly contagious skin infection; characterized by small red spots that evolve into vesicles, break, become encrusted, and are surrounded by a zone of erythema
keratoacanthoma an epithelial skin tumor that first grows rapidly and then regresses and heals
melanoma a highly malignant skin cancer formed from pigmented skin cells
otalgia earache
pediculosis an infestation of lice
petechiae minute red spots on the skin due to the escape of a small amount of blood
phototoxicity a property of a chemical that becomes toxic on exposure to light
photosensitivity an abnormal response of the skin or eye to sunlight
psoriasis a skin disorder characterized by patches of red, scaly skin that are slightly raised with defined margins; usually occurs on the elbows and knees but can affect any part of the body
retinoid a compound related to vitamin A that helps to regulate skin cell growth
ringworm a fungus that infects the horny (scaly) layer of skin or the nails; also called tinea
rosacea chronic dermatologic disorder involving inflammation of the skin of the face; also called acne rosacea
seborrhea a skin condition caused by excessive secretion by the sebaceous glands; gives the skin an oily appearance
squamous cell carcinoma a skin cancer that grows more rapidly than basal cell carcinoma but in which metastasis is uncommon
suppuration formation or discharge of pus
teratogenic causing birth defects
wart a virally caused epidermal tumor
amino acid the basic unit of a protein molecule; there are 20 different amino acids used in proteins, each having a specific set of shape, electrical charge, and water or fat affinity characteristics
antirejection drug a medication that prevents the body from rejecting foreign solid organ transplants
B cell antibody-producing lymphocyte involved in humoral immunity
biologic-response modifiers agents that alter the expression and response to surface antigens and enhance immune cell activities in ways that promote destruction of human malignancies
biotechnology the application of biologic systems and organisms for agricultural, industrial, and medical purposes
cellular (cell-mediated) immunity a specific response to antigens that is mediated primarily by T lymphocytes and macrophages
cloning reproducing identical copies of a gene by DNA technology
colony-stimulating factor (CSF) a chemical that stimulates the bone marrow to produce blood cells
complement lipoproteins and globulins in blood plasma that react with the antigenantibody complex
complementary of a nucleic acid strand, having each nucleotide base paired up with its counterpart in the other strand
cytoprotective agent an agent administered to reduce the side effects and toxicity of chemotherapy agents
denatured disruption of the structure
diffuse tumor a cancerous growth that is widely distributed and are not localized
DNA sequence order of nucleotide bases in the DNA molecule; a group of three nucleotides translates into one amino acid
extravasation the escape of IV fluids into the surrounding tissue
granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) an agent that stimulates the bone marrow to produce specific white cells, such as the granulocytes
hematologic agent a replacement plasma protein that is necessary for blood coagulation and is not produced in a person with hemophilia
humoral immunity an immune response in which secreted antibodies are transported by bodily fluids
immune response the immune system's way of providing resistance to disease and malignancy through the production of antibodies and phagocytes
immunoglobulin (Ig) a protein that responds to a specific antigen; also known as an antibody
lymphatic system a network of vessels that carry lymph, the lymph nodes, and the lymphoid organs including the tonsils, spleen, and thymus; a system for filtering body fluids by nodes, vessels, and lymphocytes before the fluid returns to general circulation
MAb (monoclonal antibody) an antibody produced in the laboratory by a culture derived from a single B cell
macrophage a large white blood cell that engulfs antigens, toxins, and cellular debris, and digests it, and displays peptides complexed with MHC for recognition by T cells
neoplastic disease a disorder that occurs when normal cellular control mechanisms become altered; characterized by uncontrolled cellular growth and the development of abnormal cells; also referred to as cancer
nucleotide the basic unit of a DNA molecule, containing one of four possible bases
opsonization labeling antigenic material so that it is more readily identified and destroyed by macrophages
oral complications tissue injury to the oral cavity associated with chemotherapy and radiation
plasma cell a B cell that produces freely circulating antibody in very large quantities
plasmid a small circular ring of DNA that can insert itself into bacterial genes and can carry genes from one bacterial cell to another
primary site the original site where a cancer tumor develops
promoter the part of plasmid DNA where protein production starts
recombinant DNA artificial DNA produced in a laboratory by inserting strands of DNA from one organism into that of another organism
remission the condition in which a tumor is inactive with no cell division or growth; typically, a goal of chemotherapy
replication the process of copying the DNA of a cell into a new set of DNA molecules to produce a new cell
resistance lack of responsiveness of cancer cells to chemotherapy
secondary site a new cancer tumor site to which malignant cells have spread from the original site
small lymphocyte T and B memory cells, which carry and preserve information for the recognition of specific antigens
solid tumor a tumor that forms a solid mass and can be palpated
T cell lymphocyte that responds to antigens presented on the surface of other cells; involved in cellular immunity
terminator the portion of plasmid DNA where protein production stops
transcription the copying of information from a DNA strand onto an RNA strand, which then serves as a messenger to the molecular systems that use it to assemble a protein
acidosis a blood pH below 7.35; a metabolic condition due to excessive loss of bicarbonate or sodium
alkalosis a blood pH above 7.45; a metabolic condition due to excessive loss of potassium or chloride
antidote a drug that counters the harmful effects of a poison
antivenin a material used in treatment of poisoning by animal venom
botulin toxin a neurotoxin that blocks the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, resulting in muscular paralysis
chelating agent a drug that bonds to a metal ion to prevent it from reacting with biological compounds
Code Blue a system to communicate that a patient is in a life-threatening situation
coenzyme a chemical other than a protein that is needed to assist an enzyme in performing a metabolic function
cracking separation of lipid from a parenteral nutrition solution
electrolyte a substance that dissociates into ions in solution and is thus capable of conducting electricity
enteral by way of, or pertaining to, the intestine
enteral nutrition feeding a patient liquid food through a tube that leads to the gastrointestinal system
fat-soluble vitamins vitamins that are absorbed along with dietary fat and are maintained in large stores by the body; vitamins A, D, E, and K
gastric lavage a procedure to wash out or irrigate the patient's stomach, commonly known as a stomach pump
herbs plants or plant parts extracted and valued for their savory, aromatic, or medicinal qualities
hypertonic solution a solution with a higher concentration of particles than body fluids contain
hypotonic solution a solution with a lower concentration of particles than body fluids contain
isotonic solution a solution with the same level of particles, and thus the same tonicity, as body fluids
malnutrition any disorder of nutrition
medical food a preparation taken orally consisting of nutrients specifically required to treat some disease or condition
osteomalacia demineralization and weakening of the skeleton, caused by a deficiency of vitamin D in adults
parenteral nutrition feeding a patient by supplying a nutrient solution through a vein
phytonadione vitamin K1
pooling a time-saving process used when preparing a three-in-one TPN, in which all electrolytes except phosphate are put into a small-volume parenteral bag and then transferred into each batch
probiotic a product to restore or promote the growth of normal bacterial flora in the body
propagate reproduce
ricin a toxin derived from the castor bean that acts by disabling the molecular machinery for protein synthesis
supportive therapy therapy for poisoning that consists of establishing the airway and providing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR); maintaining body temperature, nutritional status, and fluid and electrolyte balance; and preventing circulatory collapse, hypoglycemia, uremi
three-in-one see total nutrient admixture
tocopherol one of the alcohols that constitute vitamin E
tonicity the relationship of a solution to the body's own fluids; measured by determining the number of dissolved particles in solution
total nutrient admixture (TNA) an amino acid-dextrose-lipid formulation used for parenteral nutrition; often called three-in-one
total parenteral nutrition (TPN) feeding a patient through the veins only
two-in-one a formulation for parenteral nutrition that contains only amino acids and dextrose
vitamin an organic substance that is necessary for the normal metabolic functioning of the body but that the body does not synthesize, so it must be obtained from food
water-soluble vitamins vitamins that are excreted in the urine and are not stored in the body; vitamin C and the B vitamins
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