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BIO 206 Exam 2

Lymphatic System, Immune System, Respiratory System

complement group of bloodbourne proteins, which, when activated, enhance the inflammatory and immune responses and may lead to cell lysis
humoral immunity provided by antibodies present in the body's bodily fluids; extracellular targets --> inactivating the targets temporarily and marking them for destruction by phagocytes or complement. B-cells
inflammation prevents injurious agents from spreading to adjacent tissues, disposes of pathogens and dead tissue cells, and promotes tissue repair
interferon proteins released by virus-infected cells and certain lymphocytes; act as chemical messengers to protect uninfected tissue cels from viral takeover; mobilize immune system
opsoinization process by which speeds up the phagocytosis of the pathogen
T-cell non-antibody-producing lymphocytes that constitute the cellular arm of adaptive immunity; develops receptors for a specific antigen
B-cell oversee humoral immunity
cellular immunity immunity conferred by activated T-cells, which directly kill infected or cancerous body cells or cells of foreign grafts and release chemicals that regulate the immune response
plasma cells antibody-producing "machine"; produces huge number of antibodies (immunoglobulins) with the same antigen specify. An effector B-cell
Natural Killer cells promotes apoptosis (cell suicide) by directly attaching virus-infected or cancerous body cells; recognize general abnormalities rather than specific antigens; do not form memory cells
antigen substances capable of provoking an immune response. Typically a large, complex molecule (e.g. protein or modified protein) not normally present in the body
antibody protein produced by B-cell or plasma cell. Those produced by plasma cells are released into body fluids, where they attach to antigens. This causes complement fixation, neutralization, precipitation, or agglutination, which "marks" the antigen for destr
immunoglobulin another name for an antibody. has 5 different classes (IgM, IgA, IgD, IgG, IgE
memory cell descendent of activated B-cell or any class of T-cell; generated during initial immune response (primary response). May exist in body for years after, enabling it to respond quickly and efficiently to subsequent infections or encounters with same antigen
nasal conchae produces mucus; filters, warms, and moistens incoming air; resonance chamber for speech; receptors for sense of smell
larynx connects pharynx to trachea closed by the epiglottis air passageway prevents food from entering lower respiratory tract voice production
epiglottis closes the opening of the larynx
glottis opening of the larynx
trachea tube running from larynx, divides inferiorly into two main bronchi air passageway cleans, warms, and moistens incoming air
macrophages cells produced by white blood cells (monocytes) that leave the bloodstream and then enter the tissues
carina spar of cartilage projects posteriorly from its inner face, marking the point where the trachea branches into the two main bronchi
pleurae two layers of serous membrane that line the thoracic cavity and covers the external surface of the lung
lymph fluid contained in lymphatic vessels
alveoli microscopic changers at end of bronchial tree special cells produce surfactant main site for gas exchange reduces surface tension and helps prevent lungs collapse
surfactant secretion produced by certain cells of the alveoli that reduces the surface tension of water molecules, thus preventing the collapse of the alveoli after each expiration
spirometer tool used to measure lung volume and capacity
respiration the process involved in supplying the body with oxygen and disposing of carbon dioxide
vital capacity maximum about of air that can be inspired after a normal tidal volume expiration average for male = 4800 ml average for female = 3100 ml
tidal volume amount of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath under resting conditions average for male = 500 ml average for female = 500 ml
inspiratory reserve volume amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal inspiration average for male = 3100 average for female = 1900
expiratory reserve volume amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal expiration average for male = 1200 average for female = 700
residual volume amount of air remaining in the lungs after a forced expiration average for male = 1200 average for female = 1100
total lung capacity maximum amount of air contained in lungs after a maximum inspiratory effort average for male = 6000 average for female = 4200
inspiratory capacity maximum amount of air that can be inspired after a normal tidal volume expiration average for male = 3600 average for female = 2400
functional residual capacity volume of air remaining in the lungs after a normal tidal volume expiration average for male = 2400 average for female = 1800
hypoxia condition in which inadequate oxygen is available to tissues
apnea breathing cessation
hyperventilation an increase in the depth and rate of breathing that is in excess of the body's need for removal of carbon dioxide
asthma episodes of coughing, dyspnea, wheezing, and chest tightness obstruction is reversible
bronchi right and left air passageways connecting trachea with alveoli cleans, warms, and moistens incoming air
bronchioles smaller branching air passageways inside the lungs
Cl-shift chloride ions move from the plasma into the RBCs via facilitated diffusion through a RBC membrane protein
alveolar/capillary membrane type I alveolar cells - side of the membrane that has gas type II alveolar cells - side of the membrane that has blood
dead space anatomical - air in the lungs not available for gas exchange physiological - sites at the end of the bronchial tree not suitable for gas exchange due to pathology
Haldane effect reflects the greater ability of reduced hemoglobin to form carbaminohemoglobin and to buffer hydrogen ions by combing with it
lymph nodes site of tight concentration of B-cells --> plasma cells --> Abs
lymphema swelling of the lymph node
lymph organs spleen, thymus, tonsils, peyer's patches, appendix
Created by: katiemac34



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