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Module 1

VOCAB Anatomy & Physiology

TermDefinition
Cell Physiology the study of the chemical and molecular processes inside and between cells.
Special Physiology the study of chemical processes and functions of specific organs such as the heart.
Systemic Physiology the study of the cooperative functions of all the organs in a system.
Pathological Physiology a study of the effects of diseases on organs and systems.
Skin Anatomist: Identify the multiple integument layers and the subcutaneous layers. Physiologist: Describe how the blood vessels of the skin contract and dilate, which assists in controlling the temperature of the body.
Small Intestine Anatomist: Identify the many layers of the small intestines and the cells that make up those layers. Physiologist: Explain the various ways nutrients are broken down and absorbed in the small intestines.
Blood Capillaries Anatomist: Measure the size and thickness of the capillaries in comparison to the size of the other blood vessels. physiologist: Describe the types of pressure that cause blood and fluid to flow through the walls of the capillaries.
Appendicular means pertaining to the upper or lower limbs of the body. The prefix append- means "to hang something."
Axial Axial means pertaining to the head, neck, and trunk of the body. The prefix ax- means "axis."
Homeostasis is one of the major themes in anatomy and physiology. It is the body's maintenance of a stable internal environment.
Metabolism another term you will see throughout this course, involves all of the physiological events and chemical reactions that obtain, release, and use energy.
Anatomical Position The body is straight in the standing position, eyes looking straight ahead.
Supine Position The body is lying down on its back with face pointing upwards.
Sagittal plane: A lengthwise cut that divides the body into right and left portions. If a sagittal section divides the body into two equal parts, it is called a median or mid-sagittal.
Transverse plane A horizontal cut that divides the body into superior (top) and inferior (bottom) portions.
Frontal plane A vertical cut at a right angle to a median plane, separating the body or organ into anterior (front) and posterior (back) sections. It is also known as coronal plane.
Atom All matter, including everything that makes up our bodies, is composed of atoms. An atom is the smallest particle of an element that has properties of that element.
Molecule Molecules are particles made up of two or more atoms bonded, or joined, together. Examples: water (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2).
Macromolecule Small molecules join together to form larger macromolecules (The prefix macro- means “large”). Macromolecules are very large molecules consisting of many smaller molecular units bonded together.
Cell The cell is the basic unit of structure and function in all living organisms. In humans and other multicellular organisms, individual cells can vary greatly in size, shape, and function.
Tissue Tissues are made up of groups of cells with similar characteristics. These cells work together to carry out specific functions.
Epithelial Function Protection, secretion, absorption, excretion
Epithelial Location Covering body surface, covering and lining internal organs, composing glands
Epithelial Characteristics Lack blood vessels, cells are tightly packed and readily divide
Epithelial Examples Makes up skin and walls of organs
Muscle Function movement
Muscle Location Attached to bones, in the walls of hollow internal organs, heart
Muscle Characteristics Contract in response to specific stimuli
Muscle Examples Makes up heart, walls of stomach and blood vessels, skeletal muscles that help body move
Connective Function Bind, support, protect, fill in spaces, store fat, produce blood cells
Connective Location Distributed throughout the whole body
Connective Characteristics Can be vascular or avascular with cells farther apart than other tissues with material secreted by the cells in between them
Connective Examples Blood, bone, cartilage, connecting muscles to bones, making up framework of many organs
Nervous Function Conduct impulses for coordination, regulation, integration, and sensory reception
Nervous Location Brain, spinal cord, nerves
Nervous Characteristics Cells communicate with each other and with other body parts
Nervous Examples Nerve endings throughout the body that receive stimuli such as pain, heat, or touch
Skin is called integument
epidermis The outer layer of skin composed of epithelial tissue.
dermis The inner layer, made up of connective tissue.
hypodermis A layer of specialized connective tissue that binds the skin to underlying organs.
melanocytes specialized cells that produce a skin-darkening pigment called melanin.
Merkel cells Oval receptor cells found in the skin of humans and some other vertebrates.
Sweat Glands Produces a liquid that evaporates to cool the body
Blood Vessels Contract when body temperature decreases to prevent heat loss.
Osteology The study of bones.
axial skeleton contains the cartilage and bones that support the organs of the head, neck, and trunk.
Hyoid Bone Located in the neck between the larynx and lower jaw, the hyoid bone supports the tongue and the muscles that move the tongue. It is not attached to any other bones but is held in position by muscles and ligaments.
Vertebral Column Also called the spinal column, it forms the central axis of the skeleton. The vertebral column is made up of many vertebrae bones that are separated by cartilaginous intervertebral discs.
Sacrum Five vertebrae fuse together near the distal end of the vertebral column to form the sacrum, part of the pelvis. A small tailbone, formed by four fused vertebrae, is attached to the end of the sacrum. This tailbone is called the coccyx.
Rib Cage Also called the thoracic cage, it is made up of twelve pairs of ribs connected posteriorly to the thoracic vertebrae. Most of the ribs are also attached anteriorly to the sternum, or breastbone.
The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones in the upper and lower limbs, as well as the bones that anchor those limbs to the axial skeleton.
The pectoral girdle is made up of the scapula (shoulder blade) and the clavicle (collar bone). These bones are found on both sides of the body, connecting the bones of the upper limbs to the axial skeleton and aiding in limb movement.
Humerus Upper arm bone
Radius and Ulna 2 forearm bones
Carpals 8 wrist bones
Metacarpals 5 bones of the palm
Phalanges 14 finger bones
The pelvic girdle composed of the left and right Os Coxae. They are attached to the sacrum posteriorly and to each other anteriorly.
Femur Thigh Bone
Tibia Shin bone
Fibula slender leg bone next to the tibia
Patella Kneecap, covering where the Femur and Tibia connect
Tarsals 7 ankle bones
Metatarsals 5 bones in the foot's instep
osteogenesis The process of bone formation; also called ossification.
osteoblasts bone forming cells
Osteogenic stem cells are undifferentiated cells and can become any kind of cell needed for bone formation
haversian canal Central canal which contains small blood vessels and nerve fibers that serve the needs of the osteon.
canaliculi Extremely small tubular passage or channel.
osteoclasts Large cells that resorb or break down bone matrix.
compact bone Internal layer of skeletal bone that appears dense and solid which is riddled with passageways that serve as conduits for nerves, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels.
spongy bone Internal layer of skeletal bone which appears poorly organized, also called cancellous bone.
Haversian canal Central canal which contains small blood vessels and nerve fibers that serve the needs of the osteon.
Created by: saldiva