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Chp 6/skull/axial

Chp 6/axial skeleton;martini

QuestionAnswer
What are the 2 divisions of the skeletal system? 1) axial (skull,thorax,vertebral) 2. appendicular (limbs,pectoral & pelvic girdle
Which skeletal system houses sense organs for taste,smell,hearing,balance & sight? Axial skeleton
The joints of the _________ skeletal system permit limited movement but are strong and reinforced with ligaments axial
Name 3 FX of the muscle attached to the axial skeleton: 1. adjust position of head,neck,trunk 2. perform respiratory movements 3. stabilize appendicular system (limbs)
Which parts of the axial skeleton are hemopoietic (blood formation in bone marrow)? vertebrae,sternum,ribs
Name the 6 cranial bones that enclose the cranial cavity E= ethmoid Front = Frontal SPOT = sphenoid,pareital,occipital,temporal
Where are the blood vessels,nerves & membranes of the brain or cranium? inner surface
What is the attached to the outer surface of the cranium? muscles that move the eyes,jaws& head
Name 7 superficial facial bones Make My Violet Zebra Loose Nine Pounds:maxillae,mandible,vomer,zygomatic, lacrimal,nasal,palatine
What is the Fx of the facial bones? protect and support entrance to digestive & respiratory tract
What is the large,cricular opening on the occipital bone for? connects cranial cavity with spinal cavity enclosed by vertebral column
Where does the skull connect to the first C1 (cervical vertebrae of the neck)? occipital condyles
What is the purpose of the superior and inferior nuchal lines? marks attachment of muscles that stabilize the joint at the occipital condyles & blance weight of head over vertebrae
Which canals are above the occipital condyle? hypoglossal canals;hypoglossal nerves control tongue muscles
Besides the Foramen magnum,what other foramen does the occipital bone formspart of? Jugular foramen;internal jugular vein drains venous blood from the brain
What is the attached to the outer surface of the cranium? muscles that move the eyes,jaws& head
Name 7 superficial facial bones Make My Violet Zebra Loose Nine Pounds:maxillae,mandible,vomer,zygomatic, lacrimal,nasal,palatine
What is the Fx of the facial bones? protect and support entrance to digestive & respiratory tract
What is the large,cricular opening on the occipital bone for? connects cranial cavity with spinal cavity enclosed by vertebral column
Where does the skull connect to the first C1 (cervical vertebrae of the neck)? occipital condyles
What is the purpose of the superior and inferior nuchal lines? marks attachment of muscles that stabilize the joint at the occipital condyles & blance weight of head over vertebrae
Which canals are above the occipital condyle? hypoglossal canals;hypoglossal nerves control tongue muscles
Besides the Foramen magnum,what other foramen does the occipital bone form part of? Jugular foramen;internal jugular vein drains venous blood from the brain
Which bone forms the major part of the Calvaria? pareital bone
What are the 3 parts of the Temporal bone? Squamos,Tympanic,petrous
What does the Tympanic part of the Temporal bone surround? entrance to external acoustic meatus (auditory canal)
Which part of the occipital bone surrounds and protects the sense organs of hearing and balance? petrous part;most massive and hardest
Where is the Mastoid process by? lateral side of temporal lobe,below the external acoustic meatus
Ligaments that support the Hyoid bone attach to __________ process styloid
Facial nerves pass through __________foramen to control facial muscles stylomastoid
What 2 areas marks the site of the zygomatic arch? mandibular fossa and articular tubercle
Where is the carotid canal? temporal bone area;anterior to the jugular foramen
The _____bone articulates with every other facial bone;large but hidden by superficial bones Sphenoid;Batman shape
What is the Fx of the Sphenoid bone? acts as a brace to strengthen the sides of skull
A central depression ,Hypophyseal,between the Sphenoid wings cradles the ______ gland Pituitary
What bony enclosure surrounds the Hypophyseal? sella turcica "Turkish saddle"
Where do the optic nerves carrying visual info travel through? optic canal above the sella turcica on the superior side of the sphenoid bone
_______ sinus is located on the anterior part;eyes of the bat sphenoidal
What is the function of the Pterygoid processes of the sphenoid bone? vertical projections between the lesser and greater wing and have muscles that move lower jaw and soft palate
What 4 structures does the Ethmoid bone partially forms? 1.orbital wall 2.front middle floor of cranium 3.roof of nasal cavity 4. part of nasal septum
Name 3 parts of Ethmoid bone 1. perpendicular plate 2. cribiform plate 3. lateral masses
What ridge separatres the right and left side of cribiform plate? crista galli (chicken crest or cock's comb)
Where is the Superior Orbital fissure on the sphenoid bone (batman) anterior side of sphenoid,below the lesser wing,next to sphenoidal sinus (eyes)
In the sphenoid bone,where does the optic nerve go through? optic canal on superior surface on top of sella turcica
What openings do the olfactory nerves pass through in the Ethmoid bone? cribiform foramina on the cribiform plate
What membrane is attached to the crista galli & FX to stabilize the brain in place? Falx Cerebri
What makes up the Lateral masses containing ethmoidal labyrinth? superior and middle nasal conchae
What is the FX of the thin scrolls of bone or conchae? slows down air flow for dust removal,warming & humidification before entering further down resp. tract
What makes up the nasal septum in the ethmoid bone? perpendicular plate,vomer, & hyaline cartilage
Where else are olfactory receptors found in the ethmoid bones? cribiform plate,superior nasal conchae,upper perpendicular plate
The ____ cranial fossa is made up of the frontal bone,the ethmoid,lesser wings of sphenoid Anterior (mesencephalon)
What bones make up the middle cranial fossa? Sphenoid,parietal,temporal (diencephalon)
The inferior posterior cranial fossa is formed by what bones? petrous parts of temporal bone,primarily by occipital bone,and some parietal
What are the largest facial bones? left/right maxillae (upper jaw)
The maxillae articulates with all other facial bones, except _______ mandible (lower jaw)
The Alveolar processes are found on the oral margin of the ________ where the upper teethe are. maxillae
What are the largest sinuses in the skull? maxillary sinuses
What is the FX of the maxillary sinus lighten the portion of the maxillae abovce teethe & produce mucous secretions to flush the inferior nasal cavity
What process forms the hard,bony roof of the mouth? palatine processes
Name the 5 areas of the L shaped Palatine bones Nasal CHOP = Nasal crest;Conchal crest;Horizontal plate;orbital process;perpendicular plate
Horizontal plate articulates with ____ to back portion of hard palate Maxillae (upper jaw)
Perpendicular plate (vertical) articulates with 4 bones: MESI : maxillae,ethmoid,sphenoid,inferior nasal concha
The Orbital Process of the palatine bones articulates with _____ to form the back floor of the bony orbit Orbital Process
Where do nasal bones articualte with frontal bone? Frontonasal suture
Does the Inferior Nasal Conchae perform the same FX as the Conchae of the Ethmoid bone? yes;scroll like pair of bones resemble the concahe in the Ethmoid also
What forms the Zygomatic arch? Temporal Process of Zygom. bone articulates with zygomatic Process of Temp bone
What are the smallest bones of the skull (facial and cranial bones) lacrimal bone
What 3 bones does the Lacrimal bone articulate with? FEM: frontal,ethmoid,maxilla
What shallow depression leads to the nasolacrimal canal? lacrimal groove or lacrimal sulcus
What makes up the nasal septum? Vomer & perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone
The lower jaw (mandible) can be sub divided into: horizontal Body and ascending Ramus
What part of the mandibles supports the teethe? mandibular body
The Condylar process extends to the ____ of the mandible Head
The mandibular head articulates with the mandibular fossae of the ______ TMJ - temporomandibular joint
What is the disadvantage of TMJ mobility to chew or talk? jaw can be dislocated by forceful movement
The ______ process of the mandible has a muscle important for closing the mouth Coronoid
What type of nerves pass through the mental foramina? (mentalis = chin) sensory info from lips and chin back to the brain
_________ notch is found in between the Coronoid process and condylar process mandibular
The ______ process includes the alveoli and roots of the teethe Alveolar
Where do dentists typically anesthesize before working on lower teethe? mandibular canal; (mylohyoid line<mandibular foramen<mandibular canal)
What 7 bones make up the orbital complex (bones around eyes) Please Leave Eight Plates For My Zebra:palatine;lacrimal;ethmoid,sphenoid,frontal,maxillae;zygomatic
What does the Nasal complex include,besdies the bones & cartilage of nasal cavity? paranasal sinuses (air spaces connected to nasal cavity)
What 3 bones form the superior wall of the nasal cavity? Frontal,Sphenoid,Ethmoid
What bones form the lateral wall of the nasal cavity? Maxillae,lacrimal,ethmoid,inferior nasal conchae
The bridge of the nose is supported by the ____ and _____ bones. maxillae & nasal bones
What 4 bones contains paranasal sinuses (air filled chambers) Front MES (frontal,maxillae,ethmoid,sphenoid)
Name 3 FX of the paranasal sinuses lighten skull bones,produce mucus & resonate sound
What ligament holds up the Hyoid bone? stylohyoid ligament
Which bone is not in direct contact with anyother bone? Hyoid bone; this allows bone to become mobile since only ligaments & muscles are the only connections to other bones
Name the 3 parts of the Hyoid bone greater horn, lesser horn, body (center)
Which area of the hyoid helps support the larynx and have muscles for tongue movement? greater horns
What is the condition that causes a distorted skull growth due to premature closing of frontal or other suture? craniostenosis
A long and narrow head is due to premature closing of which suture/ saggital
A very broad skull results from premature closing of the ______ suture coronal
Does the skull of the fetus develop rapidly right before birth? yes
What is the name of the fibrous C.T. that connect cranial bones of infants? fontanel
Are fontanels flexible and able to be distorted without damage? yes
Name the 4 fontanel regions SOMA: Sphenoidal, occipital, mastoid,anterior
The ______ fontanel is beween the squamous suture & coronal suture sphenoidal (the Spider may get squashed by the crown)
The ______ fontanel is between the squamous suture & lambdoid suture Mastoid (Master gave Squash to the lamb)
Which fontanel is the largest and l;ies between the frontal,sagittal, & coronal sutures? Anterior
The ______ fontanel lies between the lambdoid & sagittal Occipital ((in Octthe Lamb loves Sage)
How does the skull of infants and adults differ? shape & structure of cranial elementsdue to variation is size and proportion
At what age does the most sig growth of the skull stop? By age 5; brain stops growing & cranial sutures develop
The cranium of a young child is ____ than an adult Larger
The Vertebral column (back bones) & ribs are part of the ___ skeleton Axial
What is the FX of the vertebral column? provide column of support, bear the weight of the head,neck,trunk & transfer that weight to the lower limbs (appendicular system); protect spinal cord,passageway for spinal nerves & manintain upright position like sitting or standing
The first _____ vertebra form a pair of joints with the occipital condoyle Cervical (C1 or Atlas)
The _____ vertebra articulate with one or more pair of ribs Thoracic
The 5 vertebrae of the tailbone (coccyx)complete fusion by age __ 25 years old
Since the spine is not straight and rigid,name the 4 spinal curves Cervical,Thoracic,Lumbar,Sacral curves
The thoracic & sacral curves are ______ curves because they appear late in fetal development Primary or accommodation
How is the newborn vertebral column shaped compared to an adult? Newborn = C shaped adult= reverse S shaped
Why is the newborn vertebral column C shaped? only primary curves (thoracic & sacral) present;primary accomodations
When do the secondary (cervical & lumbar) curves develop in the infant? several months after birth;also called compensation curves; secondary compensation
Why are seondary curves (cervical & lumbar) also called compensation curves? help shift the trunk weight over the legs
All 4 curves are fully developed by age __ 10 years old
What is the general structural plan each vertebra has? thick,spherical to oval body with vertebral arch;vertebral body= centrum
Which processes on the veterbra marks the point of articulation with other vertebrae? superior & inferior articular processes project from the vertebral arch
What forms the lateral and posterior margins of the vertebral foramen that surrounds part of spinal cord? vertebral arch or neural arch
What are the 3 parts of the vertebral arch? floor= posterior surface of body wall= pedicles roof = laminae
Which processes on the vertebra can be seen and felt through the skin of the back? spinal or spinous process;projects from the midline of laminae
_____ Processes project laterally on both sides of laminae;sites of muscle attachment & articulates with ribs transverse
The Superior articular process projects _____ & the inferior articular process projects ____ Superior= cranially Inferior= caudal (towards the feet)
What surrounds but not completely encloses the spinal cord? vertebral arches together form the vertebral canal
What separates the vertebral bodies sitting on top of each other? 1.fibrocartilage called invertebral discs 2.gaps between pedicles
What permits passage of nerves running to and from spinal cord? invertebral foramina
What are the smallest of vertebrae that extends from occipital bone to thoracic? cervical vertebra
At which level on the vertebral column does the spinal cord still have most of the nerves that connect to the brain? cervical
As you go down the vertebral column the diameter of the spinal column & vertebral arch ______ decreases
Why are the cervical veterbrae small and light? they support only the weight of the head
The loading increases and the vertebral bodies gradually enlarge as you move _____the vertebral column caudally (down towards the feet)
What is a notched spinous process of the cervical vertebra Bifid (cut into 2 parts)
What passageway protects the vertebral arteries and veins supplying the brain? transverse foramina
Which cervical vertebrates are unique and modified? C1 (atlas), C2 (axis), C7
Which cervical vertebrae articulates with the occipital condyle and holds the head up? C1 (atlas)
due to the joint articulation of the Atlas (C1) to the occipital condyles,what can you do? permits nodding yes but prevents twisting
What are 3 differences of the Atlas (C1) when compared to other vertebrae 1)no body 2)semicircular anterior/posterior arches with ant/post tubercles(small rounded projections) 3)oval superior articular facets/ round inferior articular facets
When the atlas (C1) articulates with C2 (axis),what does this allow you to do? shake your head, no; rotation
The fusion of the atlas and axis creates a prominent ___ or odontoid process. Dens (toothe)
Is there an invertebral disc between C1 and C2? no, since the dens-toothe shaped process sticks out
A _____ ligament binds the dens to inner atlas to form a pivot for rotation of the atlas and skull transverse
In a child,why can impacts or severe shaking cause dislocation of the dens/damage to spinal cord? the fusion of dens and axis is incomplete
The verterbra _____ or C7 has a long slender spinous process that ends in a broad tubercle can be felt at the base of the neck. Prominens
Which vertebra prominens ligament acts like a string on a bow to keep the cervical curvature when head is upright ligament nuchae
Which vertebrae has a heart shaped + is more massive than the cervical vert? 12 thoracic vertebrae; "giraffe lives in thoracic park"
The round vertebral foramen (hole in the middle) is _____ in the thoracic vertebrae smaller
Since most of the weight is carried by the last thoracic vertebraes and the lumbar vertebrae,compression FX are common where? last thoracic and first 2 lumbar vertebrae
The spinous process of T10,T11,T12 resemble those of the _____ lumbar
Each _____ vertebrae articulates with ribs along the dorsolateral surfaces of its body thoracic
which Thoracic vertebrae have superior and inferior costal facets since they connect with 2 pairs of ribs? T1 to T 8
Vertebrae ___ and ___ only have a single costal facet one ach side. T9 to T12
Which transverse processes are thick and have transver costal facets for articualtion with tubercles of ribs? T1 to T10
Ribs 1 to 10 contact the vettebrae at 2 points, _______ facet and ____ facet. costal and tranverse
What is the result of the dual atriculation of the thoracic vertebrae and ribs? limits the mobility of thoracic vertebrae
Lumbar vertebrae body is ______and the superior/inferior surfaces are ____. thicker and oval
Does the Lumbar vertebrae have any articular facets on the body or transverse processes? no
What are other differences in the parts of the lumbar vertebra? 1) vertebral foramen is triangular 2)transverse process are slender and stick out dorsolaterally 3) stumpy spinous processes stick out dorsally (moose)
What is the most common injury in the lumbar area? herniated disc = tear or rupture in the connective tissue of invertebral discs
When do the 5 sacral parts completely fuse together? starts after puberty and is done by ages 25 to 30
Created by: mich826