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Constitutional Law

Important Cases for Constitutional Law

QuestionAnswer
United States Term Limits v. Thornton, 1995 States may not add to the Qualifications Clause of the Constitution.
Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, 2004 The Executive may detain citizens it considers enemy combatants, and these combatants may challenge their detention.
Myers v. United States, 1926 The President may remove those individuals whom he has appointed with advise and consent of the Senate.
Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, 2006 A military commission may not be used to try those being held in Guantanamo Bay.
Clinton v. City of New York, 1998 Declared the Line Item Veto unconstitutional.
The Prize Cases, 1863 The President may order a blockade of a port which has bee seized by armed insurrectionists, even without Congressional approval. These conditions qualify as a de facto state of war.
Powell v. McCormack, 1969 Congress may not exclude a member who meets all of the qualifications for membership as explicitly stated in the Constitution.
In Re Neagle, 1890 The President may appoint a martial to protect a federal judge.
Humphrey's Executor v. United States, 1935 The President may not unilaterally remove members of an independent regulatory agency.
Ex Parte McCardle, 1869 Congress removed part of the Supreme Court's jurisdiction after it had already been applied, which it is entitled to do.
South Carolina v. Katzenbach, 1966 Congress may use any legitimate means necessary to prohibit voter discrimination.
McCulloch v. Maryland, 1819 Congress has the power to charter a national bank, and this national bank may not be taxed by the states.
Luther v. Borden, 1849 The Court refused to define "republican form of government" as it considered this to be a political question.
Flast v. Cohen, 1968 The Court ruled that citizens concerned only with the government following the rules do not have standing.
Boswher v. Synar, 1986 The Comptroller General is an officer of the Legislature, and may not be given authority which would normally be given to the Executive (in this case, the ability to carry out spending cuts)
Immigration and Naturalization Services v. Chadha, 1983 The legislative veto is unconstitutional, because it violates bicameralism and presentment.
Ex Parte Quirin, 1942 The President may appoint military tribunals to try those accused of espionage, sabotage, or other warlike acts.
Rumsfeld v. Padilla, 2004 No jurisdiction is present because individual was transferred, habeas is filed under the wrong jurisdiction.
Martin v. Hunter's Lessee, 1816 Applied the judicial review statute to state laws, not just federal ones.
DeFunis v. Odegaard, 1974 Case was ruled moot due to the fact that DeFunis had been accepted into law school by the time the case challenging the university's admissions policy was heard.
Marbury v. Madison, 1803 Established the principle of judicial review
Korematsu v. United States, 1944 Court upheld the constitutionality of the internment of Japanese-Americans during World War Two.
Barenblatt v. United States, 1959 House Un-American Activities Committee can now compel testimony because its powers are more specifically defined. Resisting Communism is mre important than First Amendment protections.
Dames and Moore v. Regan, 1981 The President may make an executive agreement nullifying all lawsuits against Iran as part of a negotiation of the Iranian Hostage Crisis.
Cooper v. Aaron, 1958 Reaffirmed the decision in Martin: judicial review also applies to state statutes.
Employment Division v. Smith, 1990 Court held that laws which restrict religious practice are permissible so long as they do not target any general religion and is "generally applicable"
Cohens v. Virgina, 1821 Ruled that the decision in Martin also applied to criminal cases.
Ex Parte Milligan, 1866 President may suspend habeas corpus during wartime. Civilians must be tried in civilian court when these courts are open.
Youngstown Sheet and Tube v. Sawyer, 1952 When Congress has specified other actions, the President may not take over an industry to prevent its workers from striking during wartime.
Sherbert v. Verner, 1963 Laws burdening practice of religion must survive strict scrutiny.
United Public Workers v. Mitchell , 1947 The Court ruled that this case was not ripe because the workers challenging the Hatch Act had not yet been injured by it.
Boumediene v. Bush, 2008 Congress may only suspend habeas corpus in times of invasion/rebellion.
McGrain v. Daugherty, 1927 Congress may compel citizens to testify in an investigation.
Gravel v. United States, 1972 The Speech and Debate Clause also extends to congressional aides.
Morrison v. Olson, 1988 The special prosecutor in question is an inferior officer and may be appointed by a three-judge panel
United States v. Curtiss-Wright Export Corporation, 1936 Congress may pass resolutions relating to foreign affairs/delegate powers relating to foreign affairs to the President.
Muskrat v. United States, 1911 The Court ruled the case was collusive and a mere test of the law.
Rasul v. Bush, 2004 Federal courts may hear habeas petitions from detainees at Guantanamo Bay.
Created by: cyruscolby