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Lab #5

Mitosis and Gene Action

Mitosis A form of cell division. The genetic material of the nucleus duplicates and becomes separated into two nuclei.
Karyokinesis The division of the nuclear material.
Cytokinesis The cytoplasm is then divided into two new cells.
1) Interphase Time for growth and activity between divisions. There is a distinct nuclear membrane, chromatin material and one or more nucleoli. Duplication of DNA
2) Prophase Disappearance of the nuclear membrane and the formation of chromosomes from the chromatin. Each chromosome consists of two chromatids held together by a centromere. Centrioles move apart.
3) Metaphase The alignment of the chromosomes along the equatorial plane of the cell and by the symmetrical spindle. In human cells - 92 chromatids during prophase and metaphase. Chromatid pairs line up along the mid-line of the cell.
4) Anaphase Separation of chromatids to become chromosomes and by the migration of these chromosomes along the spindle fibers to opposite poles of the cell. Two separate groupings of chromosomes. Cleavage furrow and two nuclei are visible.
5) Telophase Completes the mitotic process. Two identical sets of chromosomes are clustered at each pole. Two daughter cells are formed as a result. Chromosomes move to the opposite poles of the cell.
Gene Is a piece of DNA that carries the instructions for making one polypeptide (protein). Can be up to 1,000 genes on one chromosome.
Nucleotides Structural units of DNA and RNA. Each nucleotide consists of three components - a phosphate group, five-carbon sugar and a base.
Deoxyribose Sugars in DNA
Ribose Sugars in RNA
DNA/RNA base Contain nitrogen and are either purines or pyrimidines.
Purine bases Adenine and Guanine
Pyrimidine bases Cytosine, Thymine and Uracil (ONLY IN RNA)
(A) Adenine in DNA (T) Thymine
Adenine in RNA (U) Uracil
(C) Cytosine (G) Guanine
mRNA Messenger RNA, involved in TRANSCRIPTION. Used to separate the gene involved into two separate strands.
tRNA Transfer RNA, used to pair up the separate strand with its corresponding strand.
Codon Three adjacent nucleotides. Usually specifies one of the 20 amino acids. There are a possible 64 codon combinations.
Anticodon tRNA carries a specific codon which will then match up with the corresponding mRNA. Translation occurs when the two are then bonded.
Methionine codon is AUG, always starts a new sequence
Stop UAA, UAG or UGA, stopping point
Created by: daydreamer67