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Cooking terms

Commonly used terms in food preparation

Baking The cooking of food in an oven without the addition of fat or oil
Blanching A method of partly cooking food by plunging it briefly into boiling water
Boiling Cooking food in water at 100 degrees
Conduction Occurs when heat is transferred from one molecule to another by collision or movement
Convection Occurs when the molecules in liquids or gases move from a warmer area to a cooler one
Cooking The transfer of energy from a heat source to food
Frying Cooking food by total or part immersion in fat or oil that is heated to temperatures between 150 and 220 degrees
Grilling Fast, dry method of cooking that uses intense heat radiated by an electrical element, a gas flame, glowing charcoal, or an open wood fire
Poaching Method of cooking delicate foods in liquid at a temperature just below simmering point - 85 degrees
RAdiation "The transmission of heat energy in the form of rays, as occurs during grilling
Roasting The cooking of food in an oven using a minimum amount of fat or oil
Steaming Cooking food in the steam from boiling water
Stewing A long, slow method of simmering food in a small amount of liquid
Beating Mixing ingredients vigorously to incorporate air or combine ingredients
Blind baking Baking a pastry shell before it is filled
Fermentation The process that occurs ver time when yeast multiplies and produces carbon dioxide. In a bread dough the volume increases as a result of this process
Folding Gently combining a light, airy mixture with a heavier mixture; a metal spoon or spatula is used in short strokes to prevent loss of air or volume
Kneading Mixing and shaping flour dough by hand; the dough is folded, pressed and turned as it is kneaded
Proving When a yeast dough is placed in a warm environment while fermentation takes place and the dough doubles in sixe
Resting When pastry is placed in the fridge for a period of time to allow the gluten to relax
Rubbing in When the shortening is mixed through the dry ingredients with fingertips until the mixture looks like breadcrumbs.
Shortening A type of solid fat used in food preparation, for example, butter, margarine or lard
Dehydration The removal of water from animal or plant tissues
Freezing Occurs when the moisture in food is converted into ice to inhibit the growth of micro-organisms
Micro-organisms Microscopic, single-cell organisms such as bacteria, yeasts and moulds that can spoil food
Pickling A method of preserving food in which salt is used to draw the water out of vegetables. The natural liquid is then re;laces with an acid such as vinegar which infuses into the food, protecting it from spoilage, as well as providing flavour
Preservation The process of preventing food products from decay so that they can be stored safely for longer periods and future use
Sterilising Involves creating an atmosphere that is free from micro-organisms
Brine A solution of salt and water which during osmosis passes through the cells walls of the food to equalise the concentration of solution inside and outside the food. Used to preserve ham, olives, cabbages and lemons
Pectin A natural, gum like component in fruit which has the ability to form a gel in the presence of sugar and acid. Used in the making of jams, jellies and marmalades.
Created by: H F