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Food Tech terms

Yr 12 Food Tehcnology terms

Cereals Plant foods that originate from any grass that produces an edible seed
Food processing Any technique or method that changes raw plant or animal material into safe, edible and more palatable food
Gluten Protein component of many cereals: high amounts are found in wheat flour
Primary processing Involves a range of processes to make food safe to eat so that it can be consumed individually or used in the manufacture of other food products. The physical form of the food changes very litte
Physical properties A particular trait such as size, viscosity or shape
Secondary processing Methods of turning primary processed foods into other food products, either on their own or mixed with other ingredients. The physical for of the original food can change quite significantly
Supply chain The network of primary producers, manufacturers, wholesalers, distributers and retailers, who turn raw ingredients into food products and deliver them to consumers.
Starch The carbohydrate component of a cereal grain. A polysaccharide made up of many glucose molecules linked together
Legumes Pod bearing plants which include peas, beans, chick peas and lentils. High in protein and fibre
Coagulation A form of denaturation and occurs when there is a permanent change in the protein from a liquid into a thick mass as a result of heat, or the addition of acids
Denaturation A permanent structural change of the protein molecules in food This can occur with the application of heat, mechanical action or the addition of acids
Homogenisation A process which breaks the globules of milk fat into minute particles so that the cream does not rise to the surface of the milk
Membrane technology Involves using a porous membrane or filter to separate the particles in a fluid. Two of the most commonly used forms are ultra-filtration and reverse osmosis.
Pasteurisation A process which destroys pathogenic or disease-causing bacteria and also extends shelf life of milk. The milk is heated to 72 degrees for 15 seconds and then is cooled rapidly to 2 degrees.
Reverse osmosis A form of membrane technology where the pores in the membrane are small and allow only water to pass through, leaving behind concentrated milk solids.
UHT Refers to processing of milk at higher temperatures than for pasteurisation, but for a much shorter time, killing all bacteria in the milk, including those that turn milk sour
Ultrafiltration A form of membrane technology in which milk is pumped across a membrane to collect the protein and fat and some of the calcium molecules but the water and lactose are allowed to pass throughds
Caramelisation A process that sugars undergo when heated to high temperatures to develop a golden brown colour
Dextrinisation The process that occurs when a starch is exposed to dry heat;the starch is broken down to dextrin, resulting in a change in colour to golden brown
Enzymes Chemical substance that acts as a biological catalyst in plants, animals and micr-organisms. They speed up chemical reactions in foods without becoming involved in the reaction
Gelatinisation The process that occurs where starch granules absorb liquid in the presence of heat and thicken the liquid, forming a gel
Maillard reaction The process that occurs when starch or sugar, and a protein, such as egg or milk, are present in the same mixture and dry heat is applied during baking. This reaction produces a golden brown colour
Created by: H F