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Anatomy and Physiolo

KCC UNIT 3 The Muscular System

Skeletal Muscle Fuction: to move the body and is a major heat producer of the body. Long and Cylindrical, multinucleated, striated (stripes), lies parellel to one another. And has voluntary movement.
Voluntary Movement We have concious control of these cells.
Multinucleated Has more than one nucleus
Smooth Muscle Contracts and squeezes fluids through a hollow structure such as the stomach.. Short, spindle shaped, has one nucleus, involuntary, and nonstriated.
Nonstriated Cells lie parallel to one another.
Involuntary We do NOT have conscious control.
Cardiac Muscle Short branched cells with one nucleus (striated.) And are involuntary.
Involuntary Automatic control ( it just happens.)
Fascia (Skeletal Muscle Structure) Loose connective tissue. On the outside of the muscles and binds them to skin or other muscles.
Epimysium (Skeletal Muscle Structure) Dense fibrous connective tissue. On the outside of the muscle.
Perimysium (Skeletal Muscle Stucture) A connective tissue that surrounds the groups of muscle cells (fibers) called fasciculi.
Endomysium (Skeletal Muscle Structure) Connective tissue that surrounds the individual muscle fibers (cells.)
Myofibril Threadlike structures that lie parallel to one another. Contain two kinds of proteins filaments (thick and thin myofilaments.)
Actin Double stranded molecule that contains a myosin binding site. (CONTRACTION)
Tropomyosin Is a PROTEIN strand that covers the myosin binding sites on the actin molecule.
Troponin A MOLECULE that has three parts. Attaches to tropomyosin to the actin and also has a site for CALCIUM to bind.
Thin Myofilaments Made of Actin, troponin, and tropomyosin molecules. (MOVES)
Thick Myofilaments Are made from the PROTEIN, MYOSIN. It has a head portion and a tail portion. Actin and Myosin overlap; during contraction as a muscle expands.
Sarcoplasmic Reticum (SR) Is a structure that contains calcium and it surrounds each myofibril. Has protei channels that open and close. Calcium is needed for muscle contraction. And energy (ATP) is needed for the calcium pump to work.
Neurotransmitters Synaptic vesicles that contain chemicals.
Synaptic gap (cleft) Between the motor neuoron and the muscle sarcolemma is a space.
Motor end plate The muscle sarcolemma dips down at the neuromuscular junction.
Physiology of a contracton The rushin in of NA+ causes "electrical current" which travels accross the sarcolemma dn down into the transverse tubules The depolarization then travels into the sarcoplasimic reticulum and this opens the calcium gates.
T-T complex The calcium moves from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and binds.
Tendons Attaches muscle to bone
Aponeurosis Attaches muscle to muscle
Ligament Attaches bone to bone
Neuron AKA? Also known as the Nerve Cell
Muscle fiber AKA ? Also means muscle cell
Neuroglia Supports, protects, and nourish the neurons. It does NOT CONDUCT IMPULSES.
Sensory Nerve fibers that carry messages towards teh CNS
Motor Nerve fibers that carry messages away from the CNS