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Chap 4-7

provides resistance to trauma, infections, barrier to water, produces vit d, sensations from the environment, and thermoregulation skin
What is the skin composed of? epidermis, epithelial tissue, and dermis which is connective tissue
skin exists in 2 forms thick and thin
Not usually considered part of the skin hypodermis
Has fingerprints which results from the dermal papilla forming parallel but curving rows thick skin
4 Cell types within the Epidermis keratinocytes, melanocytes, merkel cells, and Langerhans cells
Produces keratin for physical strength and protection keratinocytes
Produces Melanin for UV blockage in sunlight and increases with exposure to sunlight Melanocytes
Cells that contribute to the sensation of touch Merkel Cells
Cells monitor the epidermis for infectious agents Langerhan's
Layers of the epidermis stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, stratum corneum
Waterproofs the skin glycolipids between the cells in the stratum corneum
How many days does it take the cells in the stratum basale to migrate to the surface? 35
What does the dermis consist of? Papillary layer and reticular layer
What type of tissue is the papillary layer? Areloar connective tissue
What type of tissue is the reticular layer? Dense irregular connective tissue
Fluid filled area separating the epidermis from the dermis blister
Smooth muscles which are attached to a hair follicle at one end and the dermis at the other end, contract to produce goose bumps piloerector muscles
Within the dermis that sense touch Various touch receptors
5 types of glands within the skin 2 sweat and 3 sebaceous
2 types sweat glands eccrine and appocrine
Sweat glands that are widely distributed Eccrine
Sweat glands that are limited to axillary and anogential areas Appocrine
Glands that secrete an oily substance into the hair follicle Sebaceous
Secretion of __________ stimulated by hormones especially androgens that are produced during puberty sebum
Damaged in 1st degree burns epidermis
Damaged in 2nd degree burns extends to the upper region of the dermis
Damaged in 3rd degree burns Entire thickness of the skin
Skin cancer that is highly metastatic and resistant to chemotherapy Melanoma
Skin color is determined by which 3 pigments Melanin, carotene, and hemoglobin
Most significant in skin pigment and varies in color Melanin
Also called suderiferous glands sweat glands
Glands found only in the external ear canal ceruminous glands
Forms a framework for the body protecting deeper tissues forming levers so muscles move storing minerals and site where hematopoiesis occurs Bones
Outer layer of bone compact bone
Inner portion of bone Spongy bone
Another name for spongy bone Cancellous bone
Bone that is dense and solid in appearance and composed of structural units called osteons compact bone
Structural units called osteons Haversian System
Red bone marrow makes ___________ blood cells red
Bone marrow that is used for energy storage because of its fat content yellow bone marrow
As an individual ages _________ marrow is replaced by _________ marrow, marrow cells become saturated with fat and no longer active in blood cell production red, yellow
The main shaft of the long bone diaphysis
Ends of the long bone epiphyses
Covers the articular surfaces of the epiphyses to help form joints consists of hyaline cartilage Articular cartilage
Membrane which covers the surface of long bones except at joint surfaces Periosteum
Membrane that lines the trabeculae and medullary cavity Endosteum
In spongy bone arranged along lines of stress to enhance bone's strength Trabeculae
Spongy bone portion of flat bones diploe
Bone forming cells osteoblasts
Bone destroying cells osteoclasts
A break in the continuity of a bone it tears and destroys blood vessels that carry nutrients to osteocytes fracture
Formation of a fracture hematoma, formation of internal and external bony callus which binds broken ends together then completion of bone remodeling fracture repair
Bone fracture due to weakened and diseased bone and not due to excessive forces on bone. Pathologic fracture
Pain in a bone Ostealgia
Bones become porous and weak occurs particularly in post menopausal women Osteoporosis
Develops when bones are not adequately mineralized usually due to a deficiency in vit D and the bones become soft Osteomalacia and Rickets
An abnormal projection on a bone from an overgrowth bone spur
35% organic components 65% inorganic components Bone
Ability of cells to replicate mitosis
Cell division that consists of the increase of cells during fetal growth, childhood and adolescence developmental growth
Cell division that consists of cells that replace other cells that naturally turnover such as epithelial cells cell replacements
Cell division that occurs when damage has been done and cells need to be replaced as in a skin cut or bone fracture tissue repair
Cells that cannot replicate after development brain and spinal cord nerve cells
Process which generates necessary changes to DNA in sperm and ova Meiosis
Most immediate source of energy for chemical rxns in the body is the molecule ATP
Consists of the sequential process of glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain Cellular respiration
Chemical byproduct of cellular respiration carbon dioxide
The final electron receptor in the electron transport chain oxygen
Does not use oxygen anaerobic
Process that mainly uses glucose and produces little ATP but produces molecules which are needed by the other pathways to generate more ATP Glycolosis
Consists of additional pathways which become active when no oxygen is available to the cell and replenishes the molecules used in glycolosis so glycolosis can continue Does not produce ATP fermentation
Produces little ATP but does produce molecules which are needed in the electron transport chain in order to produce more ATP and also produces CO2 as a byproduct Krebs cycle
The product of the electron transport chain is a high yield of ATP
Used in the electron transport chain to accept mobile electrons used in the process Oxygen
Groups of cells that are similar in structure and function tissues
Four basic types of tissue Epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous
2 general classes of epithelial tissue membranous and glandular
Epithelium that covers the body and some of its parts and lines some cavities Membranous
Epithelium makes the secretory portion of glands Glandular
Tissue that has nerve fibers but no blood vessels and exchanges materials with the blood vessels in the underlying connective tissue Epithelium
Arrangement of cells a single layer simple
Arrangement of cells more than 1 layer stratified
Single layer but appears more than 1 layer pseudostratified
Flattened cell shape squamous
Epithelia that allows rapid diffusion and filtration to occur simple squamous
Example of simple squamous epithelia walls of the air sacs in the lungs
Epithelium that specialize in absorption and secretion simple cuboidal and simple columnar
Example of simple cuboidal epithelium kidney tubules
Epithelium of the digestive tract has microvilli for increased surface area simple columnar
Epithelium of the respiratory tract psuedostratified columnar
Epithelium that its main purpose is protection either keratinized or nonkeratinized stratified squamous
Epithelium cells that change their shape with different conditions and allows bladder to distend with urine transitional
Glands that ductless and secrete hormones into the blood Endocrine glands
Glands that secrete products onto the skin or body cavities via ducts Exocrine glands
Tissue that is primarily composed of nonliving extracellular matrix with some cells among it Connective tissue
4 main classes of connective tissue proper, cartilage, bone and blood
Connective tissue not as strong as bone but more flexible, lacks nerves and blood vessels Cartilage
Cartilage that covers the ends of long bones also known as articular cartilage and during childhood forms the epiphyseal plate Hyaline
Cartilage that forms the epiglottis and external ear Elastic
Cartilage that resists heavy pressure and forms the intervertebral discs of the spine and the meniscus of the knee Fibrocartilage
Bone that has much less structure with irregular walls spongy
Well supplied with blood vessels synthesizes red blood cells exists as spongy or compact Osseous tissue that supports and protects body structures bones
Bone that has very organized structure based on units called osteons compact
Nervous tissue cells that conduct impulses and control target sites neurons
Nervous tissue cells that support the neurons supporting cells
3 types of muscle tissue skeletal, cardiac, smooth
The ____________ of cardiac muscles are uninucleate striated and have junctions between them called intercalated discs cells
Exists in the walls of hollow organs to adjust the lumen diameter and in some organs to propel substances smooth muscle cells
Also called muscle fibers because of their significant length are multinucleated and have a striated appearance because of the pattern the contractile proteins forms skeletal muscle cells
The __________ of compact bone have a sophisticated structure osteons
Layers of calcified matrix lamellae
Central canal that contains blood vessels Haversian canal
In order to distribute blood __________ canals of the osteons are connected to it neighboring osteons with _________ canals. central, transverse
Spongy bone replaced in ______ to ______ yrs 3, 4
Compact bone replaced every _______ years 10
Provides hair with nutrients dermal papilla
Modified epidermal cells forming a tube hair follicles
Where the hair cells divide hair matrix
Smooth muscles which are attached to a hair follicle at one end and the dermis at the other end contract to produce goose bumps piloerector muscles
Determines in hair the degree of straightness or curliness cross sectional shape
Color of hair determined from different proportions of different pigments
Excessive hairiness caused by hormonal imbalances hirsutism
Forms at the end of the hairs life cycle and can be seen when the hair is pulled out club
White crescent at the proximal end of the nail which results from the thickness obscuring the underlying blood vessels lunule
Base of each nail nail matrix
Contains hard keratin as opposed to the soft keratin of the epidermis nails
Most of the hair in females and children but some of the hair in males Vellus hair
Coarser longer and considered "normal hair" terminal hair
Fine unpigmented hair mostly gone by birth lanugo
Made up of dead cells which contains hard keratin hair
Contains the information for making proteins DNA
In addition to contributing to cellular structure perform the functions to maintain life have a very limited life span and therefore need to be constantly replenished proteins
Occurs in the cytoplasm at the ribosomes protein synthesis
Information on the DNA molecule for making a specific protein is put into a temporary molecule called messenger RNA
Mobile leaves the nucleus and goes to the ribosome where a protein is made from its formation mRNA
Normal purposes of cell division include developmental growth, cell replacements, and tissue repair
Cell division that consists of the increase of cells during fetal growth childhood and adolescence developmental growth
Cell division that consists of cells that replace other cells that naturally turnover cell replacement
Cell division that occurs when damage has been done and cells need to be replaced tissue repair
Ability of cells to replicate mitosis
The 1st phase after the cells formation and can be subdivided` Interphase
The duplicated DNA condenses into chromosomes from chromatin, consists fo sister chromatids connected by a centromere, centrioles migrate to opposite ends of the cell Prophase
Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell, sister chromatids are attached to the centrioles by spindle fibers Metaphase
Mitosis has 4 phases Interphase, prophase, anaphase, telophase
Occurs after interphase, process for distributing DNA to opposite ends of the cell, prepares the cell for dividing down the middle in order to outfit each new cell with DNA Mitosis
The sister chromatids of each chromosome separate from each other are pulled to the opposite ends by spindle fibers Anaphase
Created by: dnuculovic



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