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ASL Interpreter Exam

Registry for Interpreters Written Exam - Novice Level - Utah, USA

TermDefinition
Demand-Control Schema A model for effective interpretation that studies the demands and controls that interpreters need to account for.
Demands (Demand-Control Schema) Demands are what is needed: knowledge, capability, characteristics, traits, working conditions.
Controls (Demand-Control Schema) Controls are interpersonal related and will change (options, not controlling the situation)
Environmental Demands (Demand-Control Schema) Physical surroundings, clientele, specific terms, unique situations. The distance from interpreter to client, noise pollution, etc.
Interpersonal Demands (Demand-Control Schema) Considering the thought-world of each person involved (Deaf, hearing and interpreters')
Paralinguistics (Demand-Control Schema) Studying the in-between-the-lines in speech or HOW something is said (pitch, volume, intent)
Intrapersonal Demands (Demand-Control Schema) The language of ones self. Before effectively interpreting, one must be able to be efficient in receptive and expressive communication.
Manually Coded English (MCE) A myriad of artificial visual communication methods which attempt to represent the English language in sign.
Signed English Like MCE, it follows the grammatical structure of English (but often users borrow from natural signed languages)
Sign-to-Voice Interpreting (S-V) Interpreting from a signed language into a spoken language.
Sign Supported Speech (SSS) SSS involves using an MCE method while speaking in English. This is all in the English grammatical structure. Sometimes, simultaneous interpretation is considered SSS.
Cued Speech A form of signing that only uses 8 handshapes to represent phonemes.
SEE1 Seeing Essential English. Uses ASL but in English grammatical structure. However, it uses literal words. Ex: Butterfly becomes signs "butter" and "fly"
SEE2 or SEE Signing Exact English (1970s) is similiar to SEE1 but compound words are allowed to use invented or modified signs. Developed in an effort to improve Deaf students' English language skills.
LOVE Linguistics of Visual English is like SEE1 but uses Stokoe's written system.
Interpreter's Four Philosophical Frames Helper, Conduit, Bi-Bi, Communication Facilitator
Code Switching The conscious or unconscious movement from ASL to a more English-like method.
What are the penalties for interpreting without certification? Being fined up to almost $2,000, jail up to 6 months and a permanent criminal record
Americans with Disabilities Act The Federal Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)is to limit “barriers to employment, transportation, public accommodations, public services, and telecommunications” (1990) based on the mental or physical disability of a person.
IDEA Individuals with Disabilities Act is a law ensuring services to children with disabilities throughout the nation. It "governs how states and public agencies provide early intervention, special education to children and youth with disabilities."
Which of the sign systems uses a conceptually based reason for choosing a sign? CASE
CASE Conceptually accurate signed English. A recently developed form of MCE. It combines the grammatical structure used in Signed English with the use of concepts rather than words, similar to ASL.
EIPA Educational Interpreter Performance Assessment. A test for those who want to interpret in the educational setting.
Register Styles (Joo) Frozen, formal, consultative, casual and intimate
A person using Cued Language to communicate with a deaf person is using which process? Transliteration
What is meant by the pathological view taken by many professionals? They view the Deaf as a physical problem only, not as a minority
What percentage of Deaf people have non-deaf parents? 90%
Which form of interpreting is most effective: simultaneous, consecutive, conduit, translation Consecutive
What form of sign is used with a deaf-blind person? Tactile
If you are asked to interpret for an individual in a situation you normally don't for them, and it conflicts with your emotions, you should...? Remember the Code of Professional Conduct (Section 3.0) and find a better interpreter
RID stands for what? The Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf. Founded in 1964 at Ball State Teacher's College. Created standardized testing for interpreters.
Code of Professional Conduct Tenent No. 1 says: "Interpreters adhere to standards of ___ communication" Confidential
Code of Professional Conduct Tenent No. 2 says: "Interpreters possess the professional ____ and ____ required for the specific interpreting situation." Skills and Knowledge
Code of Professional Conduct Tenent No. 3 says: "Interpreters conduct themselves in a manner appropriate to the specific interpreting ___." Situation
Code of Professional Conduct Tenent No. 4 says: "Interpreters demonstrate _____ for consumers." Respect
Code of Professional Conduct Tenent No. 5 says: "Interpreters demonstrate respect for ____, ____ and ____ of the profession." Colleagues, interns and students
Code of Professional Conduct Tenent No. 6 says: "Interpreters maintain an ____ business practice." Ethical
Code of Professional Conduct Tenent No. 7 says: "Interpreters engage in ____ development." Professional
The Code of Professional Conduct applies to whom? Members of the Rregistry of Interpreters for the Deaf, National Association of the Deaf, interns and students of the profession.
What is the main reason for team interpreting? To provide support
The fact that non-deaf people tend to think that Deaf people would like to be "hearing" is an example of Reciprocity of Perspective
Hearing Impaired A term used by some people who are not deaf to refer to individuals with a hearing loss. Most deaf people do not use this label for themselves because of the negative connotation of the word "impaired."
Pidgin Signed English (PSE) A term often used to refer to signing that occurs when deaf people and people who are not deaf interact; PSE uses ASL vocab in English word order. AKA: contact signing.
Repetitive Motion Disorders, Repetitive Strain Injury Physical issues that arise when an interpreter does not protect their joints, hands, etc.
Source Language The language in which the original message is conveyed.
Target Language The language in which the interpreted message is conveyed.
HVO High Visual Orientation. A term used to describe someone who has no signing or English skills. Often, a Certified Deaf Interpreter is used as a go-between for these individuals.
COI Certificate of Interpretation. Awarded after both skills and knowledge assessment.
Oral Deaf People Deaf people who do not sign, but use speech reading as a primary communication method.
Linguistic Expansion Stating implied or "understood" information or ideas present in the source language overtly to the target language.
Cultural Expansion Providing contextual information required to make sense out of something that is signed or said to someone without the requisite schema.
LRE Least Restricted Environment in education. According to law: mainstreaming into regular schools. This is a controversial topic.
Reciprocal Signals The use of utterances, signs or head nods to convey that a person is, or isn't, understanding what is being said.
Conference of Interpreter Trainers (CIT) An American organization dedicated to teaching interpretation. Membership is international.
Professional Competence Having the knowledge, skills and ethics to perform a task professionally.
Pragmatic use of language The way a language is actually used rather than language function; helps us make sense of the language we encounter in our interactions with others and determine the meaning of utterance within the given context.
Ethnocentric The idea or attitude that one's race or culture is superior to others'.
Bi-Bi Bilingual, bicultural. The idea of immersion into ASL and Deaf studies first, and then competency in the English speaking world.
Abstract Language Generic and lacking in specificity.
Affect Linguistically, it refers to emotions or feelings
Passive Voice When a sentence does not clearly identify who is using the verb. This is to be avoided in signing.
Adventitious deafness To become deaf some point AFTER birth
Consultative One or more of the formal participants is an expert on the situation at hand. (Ex: interpreting at a doctor's office.)
Oral Transliteration Makes spoken English more understandable for an oral Deaf person. Can include choosing easier to read words or accompanying with simple hand gestures.
Cultural Reduction Reducing the volume and sometimes the detail of information within an interpretation without affecting the meaning intended; done to meet communication and cultural norms of the target language.
Prosody The rhythm of a language including stress, inflection, intonation, pausing and phrasing that help listeners determine meaning and predict what the speaker will say next.
Communication Facilitation Philosophy A set of beliefs that influence the way a person views her/his role and work as an interpreter; includes a belief of Deaf people as handicapped, ASL as a means of communicating only with less educated.
Institutionalized Oppression When a group (often minority) is not acknowledged by the whole group and not accurately represented (ads, TV, social norms, etc.)
Congenital deafness To be born deaf or hard of hearing
Helper Philosophical Frame Views Deaf people as handicapped, limited, unable to fully manage their personal and business affairs; believes that Deaf people are mentally, emotionally able to fully understand. Interpreter feels like an older sibling.
Translation Changing a message from one frozen form of a language to another
Ambivalence Having both negative and positive feelings about something; common reaction of members of the oppressed group who have both postive and negative feelings about themselves and the minority group they are affiliated with.
Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Section 504 If receiving gov funding (i.e. state schools, etc.) the entity must provide accessibility and accomodations for all disabilities; this covers students, parents, and school personnel.
Processing Time The time it takes to process the source language and create a good interpretation for the target language.
Modality The channel through which a message is expressed, specifically spoken or signed.
Multi-leveled Grammar The ability of a language to produce more than one lexical item or more than one part of speech simultaneously.
Dynamic Equivalence In an interpreted event, maintaining the "chemistry" between a speaker and her/his audience that allows a connection to be made and the speaker's goals to be accomplished.
Sight Translation Changing a message from the frozen form of one language into another signed or spoken language done on first sight, without the time normally required to prepare a formal translation.
Cultural and Linguistic Mediation Interpreting in such a way that information has equivalent meaning and impact for individuals with different languages and cultural schema; requires an interpreter to make cultural and liguistic expansions and reductions.
Linguistic Reduction Lost sound in words. Cannot became "can't" over time. Going to became "gonna."
PL9.142 Education for all Handicapped Children Act of 1975; schools must accept all kids, all worthy of an education, all disabilities accepted despite of severity; started mainstreaming frenzy.
IEP Individual Education Plan; the IEP team creates goals and ideas for facilitating a child's learning; mandated by law.
TC Total Communication. An approach to Deaf ed that uses a number of modes of communication such as signed, oral, auditory, written and visual aids, varying child to child.
Paralinguistic Elements Elements that accompany and add meaning to the expression of language; includes such things as gestures, tone of voice/size of signs, visual/vocal affect, etc.
What is the NAD and what sparked its founding? National Association of the Deaf. The Milan Conference of 1880.
In which decade did Sign Language Interpreters begin to organize? The 1960s. Happened during the Civil Rights movement.
WFD World Federation of the Deaf
What is a "high context" culture? Typically a high-context culture will be collective and place a high value on interpersonal relationships and group members are a very close knit community. In language, it is assumed everyone involved can draw inferences.
The 5 parameters of ASL Phonology Handshape, movement, palm orientation and location
In what order does a subject in ASL grammar work? English is usually Subject Verb Object. ASL is Time Subject Verb Object or Time Subject Object Verb.
When is it acceptable, or required, to violate the Code of Professional Conduct? When a judge orders you to reveal something from an interpreting session.
When interpreting in a team, with a Deaf-Blind consumer or platform interpreting, what kind of interpreter is good to have on your team? A Certified Deaf Interpreter
Worked with Dr. Stokoe. In 1985 he served as Director for a project funded by the Canadian government to develop a model curriculum for Interpreter Education programs. Dr. Dennis Cokely
Created by: LeRoseNoire